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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 20-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many experts expected that asthma-associated morbidity because of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection would dramatically increase. However, some studies suggested that there was no apparent increasing in asthma-related morbidity in children with asthma, it is even possible children may have improved outcomes. To understand the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and asthma outcomes, we performed this article. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to find literature from December 2019 to June 2021 related to COVID-19 and children's asthma control, among which results such as abstracts, comments, letters, reviews, and case reports were excluded. The level of asthma control during the COVID-19 pandemic was synthesized and discussed by outcomes of asthma exacerbation, emergency room visit, asthma admission, and childhood asthma control test (c-ACT). RESULTS: A total of 22,159 subjects were included in 10 studies. Random effect model was used to account for the data. Compared with the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, asthma exacerbation reduced (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.14-0.48], Z = 4.32, p < 0.0001), the odds of emergency room visit decreased as well (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = [0.04-0.26], Z = 4.98, p < 0.00001). The outcome of asthma admission showed no significant difference (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = [0.32-2.20], Z = 0.36, p = 0.72). The outcome of c-ACT scores were not analyzed because of the different manifestations used. Overall, c-ACT scores reduced during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of asthma control has been significantly improved. We need to understand the exact factors leading to these improvements and find methods to sustain it.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/prevention & control , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255875

ABSTRACT

Pakistan has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To investigate the initial introductions and transmissions of the SARS-CoV-2 in the country, we performed the largest genomic epidemiology study of COVID-19 in Pakistan and generated 150 complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from samples collected before June 1, 2020. We identified a total of 347 variants, 29 of which were over-represented in Pakistan. Meanwhile, we found over one thousand intra-host single-nucleotide variants. Several of them occurred concurrently, indicating possible interactions among them. Some of the hypermutable positions were not observed in the polymorphism data, suggesting strong purifying selections. The genomic epidemiology revealed five distinctive spreading clusters. The largest cluster consisted of 74 viruses which were derived from different geographic locations and formed a deep hierarchical structure, indicating an extensive and persistent nation-wide transmission of the virus that was probably contributed by a signature mutation of this cluster. Twenty-eight putative international introductions were identified, several of which were consistent with the epidemiological investigations. No progenies of any of these 150 viruses have been found outside of Pakistan, most likely due to the nonphmarcological intervention to control the virus. This study has inferred the introductions and transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in Pakistan, which could provide a guidance for an effective strategy for disease control.

4.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-447293

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, as the causation of severe epidemic of COVID-19, is one kind of positive single-stranded RNA virus with high transmissibility. However, whether or not SARS-CoV-2 can integrate into host genome needs thorough investigation. Here, we performed both RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and whole genome sequencing on SARS-CoV-2 infected human and monkey cells, and investigated the presence of host-virus chimeric events. Through RNA-seq, we did detect the chimeric host-virus reads in the infected cells. But further analysis using mixed libraries of infected cells and uninfected zebrafish embryos demonstrated that these reads are falsely generated during library construction. In support, whole genome sequencing also didnt identify the existence of chimeric reads in their corresponding regions. Therefore, the evidence for SARS-CoV-2s integration into host genome is lacking. One-Sentence SummarySARS-CoV-2 does not integrate into host genome through whole genome sequencing.

5.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2043

ABSTRACT

A review. The outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia has been spreading all over the world, drawing worldwide attention. However, the origin of the novel coronavirus has not been determined yet. Traditional Chinese medicine played an important role in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. The state attaches great importance to the role of TCM in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and strengthens the early intervention of TCM in medical treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine has its own characteristics and advantages in the prevention and treatment of viral pneumonia, with better clin. efficacy and fewer side effects. In addition to eliminating or alleviating clin. symptoms, it can also regulate the immune function of patients and prevent the overreaction of the body caused by viruses. This article reviews the research on the immunomodulatory action of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of viral pneumonia, hoping to provide some reference for the clin. medication and later basic research of viral pneumonia including SARS-CoV-2.

6.
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Med. Sci. ; 5(40): 566-572, 20200528.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-647860

ABSTRACT

Objective • To explore the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal clustering of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in Jingzhou City. Methods • Data of COVID-19 cases in Jingzhou City from January 1 to March 12, 2020 were collected. Trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal scanning analysis were conducted to understand the spatial-temporal distribution of COVID-19 at town (street) level in Jingzhou City, and the spatial-temporal clustering characteristics of local cases and imported cases were compared. Results • Trend surface analysis showed that the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Jingzhou City was slightly "U" from west to east, slightly higher in the east, and inverted "U" from south to north, slightly higher in the south. Global autocorrelation showed that the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Jingzhou City was positively correlated (Moran's I=0.410, P=0.000). Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the highly clustered areas and hot spot areas were mainly in Shashi District, Jingzhou District and the main urban area of Honghu City (Xindi Street) (P<0.05). Five clusters were found by spatial-temporal scanning of imported cases. The cluster time of the main cluster was from January 18 to February 3, 2020, and it was centered on Lianhe Street, covering 15 towns (streets) in Shashi District and Jingzhou District (LLR=174.944, RR=7.395, P=0.000). Five clusters were found by spatial-temporal scanning of local cases. The cluster time of the main cluster was from January 20 to February 24, 2020, which was located in Xindi Street, Honghu City (LLR=224.434, RR=16.133, P=0.000). Conclusion • Obvious spatialtemporal clustering of COVID-19 was found in Jingzhou City, and Shashi District, Jingzhou District and Honghu City were the most prevalent areas.

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