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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 133-140, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299162

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose for all persons >18 years of age. We analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during February 27-March 26, 2022 to assess COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage among adults. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with vaccination. COVID-19 booster dose coverage among fully vaccinated adults increased from 25.7% in November 2021 to 63.4% in March 2022. Coverage was lower among non-Hispanic Black (52.7%), and Hispanic (55.5%) than non-Hispanic White adults (67.7%). Coverage was 67.4% among essential healthcare personnel, 62.2% among adults who had a disability, and 69.9% among adults who had medical conditions. Booster dose coverage was not optimal, and disparities by race/ethnicity and other factors are apparent in coverage uptake. Tailored strategies are needed to educate the public and reduce disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(7): 183-189, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273349

ABSTRACT

Although severe COVID-19 illness and hospitalization are more common among older adults, children can also be affected (1). More than 3 million cases of COVID-19 had been reported among infants and children aged <5 years (children) as of December 2, 2022 (2). One in four children hospitalized with COVID-19 required intensive care; 21.2% of cases of COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurred among children aged 1-4 years, and 3.2% of MIS-C cases occurred among infants aged <1 year (1,3). On June 17, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 6 months-5 years and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 6 months-4 years. To assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage among children aged 6 months-4 years in the United States, coverage with ≥1 dose* and completion of the 2-dose or 3-dose primary vaccination series† were assessed using vaccine administration data for the 50 U.S. states and District of Columbia submitted from June 20 (after COVID-19 vaccine was first authorized for this age group) through December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage among children aged 6 months-4 years was 10.1% and was 5.1% for series completion. Coverage with ≥1 dose varied by jurisdiction (range = 2.1% [Mississippi] to 36.1% [District of Columbia]) as did coverage with a completed series (range = 0.7% [Mississippi] to 21.4% [District of Columbia]), respectively. By age group, 9.7 % of children aged 6-23 months and 10.2% of children aged 2-4 years received ≥1 dose; 4.5% of children aged 6-23 months and 5.4% of children aged 2-4 years completed the vaccination series. Among children aged 6 months-4 years, ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage was lower in rural counties (3.4%) than in urban counties (10.5%). Among children aged 6 months-4 years who received at least the first dose, only 7.0% were non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and 19.9% were Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), although these demographic groups constitute 13.9% and 25.9% of the population, respectively (4). COVID-19 vaccination coverage among children aged 6 months-4 years is substantially lower than that among older children (5). Efforts are needed to improve vaccination coverage among children aged 6 months-4 years to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Aged , Vaccination Coverage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , District of Columbia , Demography
3.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1): 183-189, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In summer 2021, the number of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in the United States increased with the surge of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. We assessed how COVID-19 vaccine initiation and dose completion changed during the Delta variant surge, based on jurisdictional vaccination coverage before the surge. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 vaccination data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We classified jurisdictions (50 states and the District of Columbia) into quartiles ranging from high to low first-dose vaccination coverage among people aged ≥12 years as of June 30, 2021. We calculated first-dose vaccination coverage as of June 30 and October 31, 2021, and stratified coverage by quartile, age (12-17, 18-64, ≥65 years), and sex. We assessed dose completion among those who initiated a 2-dose vaccine series. RESULTS: Of 51 jurisdictions, 15 reached at least 70% vaccination coverage before the Delta variant surge (ie, as of June 30, 2021), while 35 reached that goal as of October 31, 2021. Jurisdictions in the lowest quartile of vaccination coverage (44.9%-54.9%) had the greatest absolute (9.7%-17.9%) and relative (18.1%-39.8%) percentage increase in vaccination coverage during July 1-October 31, 2021. Of those who received the first dose during this period across all jurisdictions, nearly 1 in 5 missed the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 vaccination initiation increased during July 1-October 31, 2021, in jurisdictions in the lowest quartile of vaccination coverage, coverage remained below that of jurisdictions in the highest quartile of vaccination coverage before the Delta variant surge. Efforts are needed to improve access to and increase confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low-coverage areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(6): 865-876, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239286

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines are safe, effective, and widely available, but many adults in the U.S. have not been vaccinated for COVID-19. This study examined the associations between behavioral and social drivers of vaccination with COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the U.S. adults and their prevalence by region. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults participated in a cross-sectional telephone survey in August-November 2021; the analysis was conducted in January 2022. Survey questions assessed self-reported COVID-19 vaccine initiation, demographics, and behavioral and social drivers of vaccination. RESULTS: Among the 255,763 respondents, 76% received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine uptake was higher among respondents aged ≥75 years (94%), females (78%), and Asian non-Hispanic people (94%). The drivers of vaccination most strongly associated with uptake included higher anticipated regret from nonvaccination, risk perception, and confidence in vaccine safety and importance, followed by work- or school-related vaccination requirements, social norms, and provider recommendation (all p<0.05). The direction of association with uptake varied by reported level of difficulty in accessing vaccines. The prevalence of all of these behavioral and social drivers of vaccination was highest in the Northeast region and lowest in the Midwest and South. CONCLUSIONS: This nationally representative survey found that COVID-19 vaccine uptake was most strongly associated with greater anticipated regret, risk perception, and confidence in vaccine safety and importance, followed by vaccination requirements and social norms. Interventions that leverage these social and behavioral drivers of vaccination have the potential to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake and could be considered for other vaccine introductions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Cognition
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011085, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224483

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are important assets to fight COVID-19, but most existing nAbs lose the activities against Omicron subvariants. Here, we report a human monoclonal antibody (Ab08) isolated from a convalescent patient infected with the prototype strain (Wuhan-Hu-1). Ab08 binds to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with pico-molar affinity (230 pM), effectively neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Mu, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, and to a lesser extent for Delta and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 which bear the L452R mutation. Of medical importance, Ab08 shows therapeutic efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2 mice. X-ray crystallography of the Ab08-RBD complex reveals an antibody footprint largely in the ß-strand core and away from the ACE2-binding motif. Negative staining electron-microscopy suggests a neutralizing mechanism through which Ab08 destructs the Spike trimer. Together, our work identifies a nAb with therapeutic potential for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Prev Med ; 167: 107415, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165969

ABSTRACT

By the end of 2021, approximately 15% of U.S. adults remained unvaccinated against COVID-19, and vaccination initiation rates had stagnated. We used unsupervised machine learning (K-means clustering) to identify clusters of unvaccinated respondents based on Behavioral and Social Drivers (BeSD) of COVID-19 vaccination and compared these clusters to vaccinated participants to better understand social/behavioral factors of non-vaccination. The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module collects data on U.S. adults from September 26-December 31,2021 (n = 187,756). Among all participants, 51.6% were male, with a mean age of 61 years, and the majority were non-Hispanic White (62.2%), followed by Hispanic (17.2%), Black (11.9%), and others (8.7%). K-means clustering procedure was used to classify unvaccinated participants into three clusters based on 9 survey BeSD items, including items assessing COVID-19 risk perception, social norms, vaccine confidence, and practical issues. Among unvaccinated adults (N = 23,397), 3 clusters were identified: the "Reachable" (23%), "Less reachable" (27%), and the "Least reachable" (50%). The least reachable cluster reported the lowest concern about COVID-19, mask-wearing behavior, perceived vaccine confidence, and were more likely to be male, non-Hispanic White, with no health conditions, from rural counties, have previously had COVID-19, and have not received a COVID-19 vaccine recommendation from a healthcare provider. This study identified, described, and compared the characteristics of the three unvaccinated subgroups. Public health practitioners, healthcare providers and community leaders can use these characteristics to better tailor messaging for each sub-population. Our findings may also help inform decisionmakers exploring possible policy interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Social Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Cluster Analysis
7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1041059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119733

ABSTRACT

With the global pandemic of COVID-19, it has been striking psychological burdens on individuals. Under this background, more and more people get wellbeing by watching live broadcasts. However, the psychological mechanism behind this phenomenon is still a black box. This study finds that when people watch a live broadcast and interact with anchors and other people, an interaction ritual chain is formed, and emotional energy is generated, thus making people experience and understand the meaning of the live interaction ritual chains. Under the effect of the meaning transfer model, people will generate wellbeing. Specifically, the basic meaning of live interaction (emotional meaning and functional meaning) drives people's generation of wellbeing. The meanings of self-participation, self-display, self-concept, and self-renewal play a role in mediation in enhancing people's wellbeing with the basic meaning of live broadcast interaction.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac446, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037502

ABSTRACT

A tree model identified adults age ≤34 years, Johnson & Johnson primary series recipients, people from racial/ethnic minority groups, residents of nonlarge metro areas, and those living in socially vulnerable communities in the South as less likely to be boosted. These findings can guide clinical/public health outreach toward specific subpopulations.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e741-e748, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) was reported in association with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MIS-A was included in the list of adverse events to be monitored as part of the emergency use authorizations issued for COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Reports of MIS-A patients received by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after COVID-19 vaccines became available were assessed. Data collected on the patients included clinical and demographic characteristics and their vaccine status. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) was also reviewed for possible cases of MIS-A. RESULTS: From 14 December 2020 to 30 April 2021, 20 patients who met the case definition for MIS-A were reported to CDC. Their median age was 35 years (range, 21-66 years), and 13 (65%) were male. Overall, 16 (80%) patients had a preceding COVID-19-like illness a median of 26 days (range 11-78 days) before MIS-A onset. All 20 patients had laboratory evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Seven MIS-A patients (35%) received COVID-19 vaccine a median of 10 days (range, 6-45 days) before MIS-A onset; 3 patients received a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine 4, 17, and 22 days before MIS-A onset. Patients with MIS-A predominantly had gastrointestinal and cardiac manifestations and hypotension or shock. CONCLUSIONS: Although 7 patients were reported to have received COVID-19 vaccine, all had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the widespread use of COVID-19 vaccines, the lack of reporting of MIS-A associated with vaccination alone, without evidence of underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, is reassuring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2012014

ABSTRACT

A tree model identified adults aged ≤34 years, Johnson & Johnson primary series recipients, people from racial/ethnic minority groups, residents of non-large metro areas, and those living in socially vulnerable communities in the South as less likely to be boosted. These findings can guide clinical/public health outreach toward specific sub-populations.

12.
J Anal Test ; 6(4): 353-364, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982424

ABSTRACT

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) colorimetric assays based on distance-dependent optical characteristics have been widely employed for bioanalysis. However, this assay is not effective for visually detecting low-concentration targets due to the faint color change. Here, we developed a handheld nano-centrifugal device which could separate the crosslinked and non-crosslinked AuNPs. Results showed that the handheld nano-centrifugal device could easily reach more than 6000 r/min within 10 s simply by stretching and tightening the coiled rope in an appropriate rhythm. Further, combined with the CRISPR/Cas12a nucleic acids recognition system, a field-deployable colorimetric platform termed handheld nano-centrifugal device assisted CRISPR/Cas12a (Hand-CRISPR) has been validated. Moreover, clinical diagnostics applications for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection with high sensitivity and accuracy (100% consistency with reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test results) have been demonstrated. Overall, the Hand-CRISPR platform showed great promise in point-of-care-test (POCT) application, expected to become a powerful supplement to the standard nucleic acid testing method in remote or poverty-stricken areas. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41664-022-00232-0.

13.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(6): 883-893, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936001

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how the drivers of COVID-19 vaccination vary across the U.S. To inform vaccination outreach efforts, this study explores geographic variation in correlates of COVID-19 nonvaccination among adults. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults identified through random-digit dialing for the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module. Analyses examined the geographic and temporal landscape of constructs in the Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination Framework among unvaccinated respondents from May 2021 to December 2021 (n=531,798) and sociodemographic and geographic disparities and Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination predictors of COVID-19 nonvaccination from October 2021 to December 2021 (n=187,756). RESULTS: National coverage with at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine was 79.3% by December 2021, with substantial geographic heterogeneity. Regions with the largest proportion of unvaccinated persons who would probably get a COVID-19 vaccine or were unsure resided in the Southeast and Midwest (Health and Human Services Regions 4 and 5). Both regions had similar temporal trends regarding concerns about COVID-19 and confidence in vaccine importance, although the Southeast had especially low confidence in vaccine safety in December 2021, lowest in Florida (5.5%) and highest in North Carolina (18.0%). The strongest Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination correlate of not receiving a COVID-19 vaccination was lower confidence in COVID-19 vaccine importance (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.19, 95% CI=4.93, 5.47; strongest in the Northeast, Southwest, and Mountain West and weakest in the Southeast and Midwest). Other Behavioral and Social Drivers of Vaccination correlates also varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: Contributors to nonvaccination showed substantial geographic heterogeneity. Strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccination uptake may need to be tailored regionally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Humans , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1633-1641, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924010

ABSTRACT

To identify demographic factors associated with delaying or not receiving a second dose of the 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series, we matched 323 million single Pfizer-BioNTech (https://www.pfizer.com) and Moderna (https://www.modernatx.com) COVID-19 vaccine administration records from 2021 and determined whether second doses were delayed or missed. We used 2 sets of logistic regression models to examine associated factors. Overall, 87.3% of recipients received a timely second dose (≤42 days between first and second dose), 3.4% received a delayed second dose (>42 days between first and second dose), and 9.4% missed the second dose. Persons more likely to have delayed or missed the second dose belonged to several racial/ethnic minority groups, were 18-39 years of age, lived in more socially vulnerable areas, and lived in regions other than the northeastern United States. Logistic regression models identified specific subgroups for providing outreach and encouragement to receive subsequent doses on time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , RNA, Messenger , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 847-851, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912314

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can lead to severe outcomes in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome, hospitalization, and death (1,2). On November 2, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued an interim recommendation for use of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19; however, vaccination coverage in this age group remains low (3). As of June 7, 2022, 36.0% of children aged 5-11 years in the United States had received ≥1 of COVID-19 vaccine (3). Among factors that might influence vaccination coverage is the availability of vaccine providers (4). To better understand how provider availability has affected COVID-19 vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years, CDC analyzed data on active COVID-19 vaccine providers and county-level vaccine administration data during November 1, 2021-April 25, 2022. Among 2,586 U.S. counties included in the analysis, 87.5% had at least one active COVID-19 vaccine provider serving children aged 5-11 years. Among the five assessed active provider types, most counties had at least one pharmacy (69.1%) or public health clinic (61.3%), whereas fewer counties had at least one pediatric clinic (29.7%), family medicine clinic (29.0%), or federally qualified health center (FQHC)* (22.8%). Median county-level vaccination coverage was 14.5% (IQR = 8.9%-23.6%). After adjusting for social vulnerability index (SVI)† and urbanicity, the analysis found that vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years was higher in counties with at least one active COVID-19 vaccine provider than in counties with no active providers (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.66). For each provider type, presence of at least one provider in the county was associated with higher coverage; the largest difference in vaccination coverage was observed between counties with and without pediatric clinics (aRR = 1.37). Ensuring broad access to COVID-19 vaccines, in addition to other strategies to address vaccination barriers, could help increase vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ambulatory Care Facilities , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
16.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(5): 760-771, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with certain medical conditions are at substantially increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to assess COVID-19 vaccination among U.S. adults with reported medical conditions. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during August 1-September 25, 2021 were analyzed in 2022 to assess COVID-19 vaccination status, intent, vaccine confidence, behavior, and experience among adults with reported medical conditions. Unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs and APRs) were generated using logistic regression and predictive marginals. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 81.8% among adults with reported medical conditions, and coverage was significantly higher compared with those without such conditions (70.3%) Among adults aged ≥18 years with medical conditions, COVID-19 vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those with a provider recommendation (86.5%) than those without (76.5%). Among all respondents, 9.2% of unvaccinated adults with medical conditions reported they were willing or open to vaccination. Adults who reported high risk medical conditions were more likely to report receiving a provider recommendation, often or always wearing masks during the last 7 days, concerning about getting COVID-19, thinking the vaccine is safe, and believing a COVID-19 vaccine is important for protection from COVID-19 infection than those without such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 18.0% of those with reported medical conditions were unvaccinated. Receiving a provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccination, reinforcing that provider recommendation is an important approach to increase vaccination coverage. Ensuring access to vaccine, addressing vaccination barriers, and increasing vaccine confidence can improve vaccination coverage among unvaccinated adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(11): 1903-1911, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a severe condition temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we applied the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition to identify diagnosed and undiagnosed MIS-A cases among adults discharged during April 2020-January 2021 from 4 Atlanta, Georgia hospitals affiliated with a single medical center. Non-MIS-A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification encounter code U07.1. We calculated the ratio of MIS-A to COVID-19 hospitalizations, compared demographic characteristics of the 2 cohorts, and described clinical characteristics of MIS-A patients. RESULTS: We identified 11 MIS-A cases, none of which were diagnosed by the treatment team, and 5755 COVID-19 hospitalizations (ratio 1:523). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-A were more likely to be younger than 50 years (72.7% vs 26.1%, P < .01) and to be non-Hispanic Black (81.8% vs 50.0%, P = .04). Ten patients with MIS-A (90.9%) had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Two MIS-A patients (18.2%) had a previous episode of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, occurring 37 and 55 days prior to admission. All MIS-A patients developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction. None had documented mucocutaneous involvement. All required intensive care, all received systemic corticosteroids, 8 (72.7%) required mechanical ventilation, 2 (18.2%) required mechanical cardiovascular circulatory support, and none received intravenous immunoglobulin. Two (18.2%) died or were discharged to hospice. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A is a severe but likely underrecognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved recognition of MIS-A is needed to quantify its burden and identify populations at highest risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Adult , Humans , Connective Tissue Diseases/drug therapy , Electronic Health Records , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(7): 1201-1209, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel severe postinfectious condition associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The purpose of this report is to describe nationwide trends in the evolving clinical management of MIS-C. METHODS: Patients with MIS-C were reported from state and local jurisdictions to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) MIS-C national surveillance system. Patients' case reports were reviewed to ensure that they met the CDC MIS-C case definition and had sufficient data for analysis. The prevalence of use of treatments for MIS-C, temporal trends in use of these treatments, and frequency of administration of different treatment combinations were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 4470 patients meeting the MIS-C case definition with onset dates from 19 February 2020 to 31 July 2021. The proportion of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) has declined over time, from 78.7% in April 2020 to 57.5% in June 2021 (P = .001). The most common treatments were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), given to 85.6% of patients; steroids (77.7%), and antiplatelet medications (73.7%); use of each of these treatments has increased over time, particularly in patients not requiring admission to an ICU (all P < .001). Older patients and non-Hispanic Black patients were more likely to receive additional modes of therapy including vasoactive medication, noninvasive respiratory support, anticoagulation medication, and intubation/mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: IVIG, steroids, and antiplatelet medication have become increasingly utilized as standard treatment for MIS-C patients, while the use of other treatments may be contingent on the type and severity of clinical findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 335-340, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727014

ABSTRACT

Higher COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates in rural than in urban areas are well documented (1). These disparities persisted during the B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant surges during late 2021 and early 2022 (1,2). Rural populations tend to be older (aged ≥65 years) and uninsured and are more likely to have underlying medical conditions and live farther from facilities that provide tertiary medical care, placing them at higher risk for adverse COVID-19 outcomes (2). To better understand COVID-19 vaccination disparities between urban and rural populations, CDC analyzed county-level vaccine administration data among persons aged ≥5 years who received their first dose of either the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine or a single dose of the Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) COVID-19 vaccine during December 14, 2020-January 31, 2022, in 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). COVID-19 vaccination coverage with ≥1 doses in rural areas (58.5%) was lower than that in urban counties (75.4%) overall, with similar patterns across age groups and sex. Coverage with ≥1 doses varied among states: 46 states had higher coverage in urban than in rural counties, one had higher coverage in rural than in urban counties. Three states and DC had no rural counties; thus, urban-rural differences could not be assessed. COVID-19 vaccine primary series completion was higher in urban than in rural counties. However, receipt of booster or additional doses among primary series recipients was similarly low between urban and rural counties. Compared with estimates from a previous study of vaccine coverage among adults aged ≥18 years during December 14, 2020-April 10, 2021, these urban-rural disparities among those now eligible for vaccination (aged ≥5 years) have increased more than twofold through January 2022, despite increased availability and access to COVID-19 vaccines. Addressing barriers to vaccination in rural areas is critical to achieving vaccine equity, reducing disparities, and decreasing COVID-19-related illness and death in the United States (2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Healthcare Disparities , Vaccination Coverage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Population , United States/epidemiology , Urban Population
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