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1.
Cell Rep ; 40(3): 111088, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906848

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically because they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Depletion of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbates SARS-CoV-2 infection; the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition; this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Interferons , Mice , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors , Viral Proteins
2.
Vaccine ; 40(31): 4211-4219, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882606

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in pigs of various ages, especially in suckling piglets, and there are no effective measures to prevent and control PDCoV currently. In this study, two adjuvants Al(OH)3 and ODN2395 working through different mechanisms were used to prepare inactivated PDCoV vaccines, and the immune effects of PDCoV inactivated vaccines were assessed in mice. From the results, we found that both PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine and PDCoV/2395 vaccine could induce IgG and neutralizing antibodies with high levels in mice. At the same time, cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4 and chemokine ligand of CXCL13 in serum were significantly increased after immunization, and reached the highest levels in PDCoV/2395 vaccine group, which suggested that PDCoV/2395 could promote the production of both Th1 and Th2 polarized cytokines. In addition, histopathological observations showed that vaccination helped mice resist PDCoV infection. These results indicated that both the two inactivated vaccines have good immune effects. Moreover, the PDCoV/2395 vaccine worked better than the PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine for PDCoV/2395 having the good ability to induce both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. The PDCoV/2395 inactivated vaccine developed in this study might be an effective tool for the prevention of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Animals , Cytokines , Deltacoronavirus , Mice , Swine , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322339

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was raging in Wuhan, China and quickly spreading to the rest of the world. This period was fraught with uncertainty for those in the affected areas. The present investigation examined the role of two potential coping resources during this stressful period of uncertainty: flow and mindfulness. Participants in Wuhan and other major cities affected by COVID-19 (N = 5115) completed an online survey assessing experiences of flow, mindfulness, and well-being. Longer quarantine was associated with poorer well-being;flow and mindfulness predicted better well-being on some measures. However, flow—but not mindfulness—moderated the link between quarantine length and well-being, such that people who experienced high levels flow showed little or no association between quarantine length and poorer well-being. These findings suggest that engaging in flow-inducing activities may be a particularly effective way to protect against the deleterious effects of a period of quarantine.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292882

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of Bromodomain and Extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically as they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Knockouts of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 infection;the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection, and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition;this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292373

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have suggested the relation between outdoor air pollution and the onset risk of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is a lack of data related to the severity of the disease, especially in China. Methods We recruited a group of COVID-19 patients diagnosed in a recent large-scale outbreak caused by Delta variants in eastern China. We collected ambient air pollution data of the same period where the case occurred and applied a generalized linear model (GLM) to analyze the effects of short-term outdoor ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure on the risk of severe COVID-19. Results A total of 476 confirmed adult patients were recruited, of which 42 (8.82%) had a severe illness. With a unit increase in PM 10 , the risk of severe COVID-19 increased by 47.64% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.67, 70.73) at lag 0-14 days, 65.00% (95% CI: 35.18, 101.40) at lag 0-21 days, and 69.44% (95% CI: 37.03, 109.50) at lag 0-28 days, respectively. The association remained significant at lag 0-14 days or 0-28 days in the multi-pollutant models. With a unit increase in PM 2.5 , the risk of severe COVID-19 increased by 49.47% (95% CI: 19.61, 86.78) at lag 0-14 days, 97.61% (95% CI: 45.92, 167.60) at lag 0-21 days, and 120.27% (95% CI: 56.53, 209.98) at lag 0-28 days, respectively. The association remained significant at lag 0-21 days or 0-28 days in the multi-pollutant models. Conclusions Our results indicated that short-term exposure to outdoor PM was positively related to the risk of severe COVID-19, and reducing air pollution may contribute to the control of COVID-19.

6.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-468537

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of Bromodomain and Extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically as they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Knockouts of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 infection; the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection, and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition; this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.

10.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 224: 113684, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292698

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious lower respiratory tract infections. Currently, the only clinical anti-RSV drug is ribavirin, but ribavirin has serious toxic side effect and can only be used by critically ill patients. A series of benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized starting from 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-d-fructose and a variety of o-phenylenediamines. Evaluation of their antiviral activity showed that compound a27 had the highest antiviral activity with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 9.49 µM. Investigation of the antiviral mechanism of compound a27 indicated that it can inhibit the replication of RSV by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I, TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF)-3, TANK binding kinase (TBK)-1, interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB), interferon (IFN)-ß, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, interleukin (IL)-6 were suppressed at the cellular level. Mouse lung tissue was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry, which showed that RSV antigen and M gene expression could be reduced by compound a27. Decreased expression of RIG-I, IRF-3, IFN-ß, TLR-3, IL-6, interleukin (IL)-8, interleukin (IL)-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also found in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Benzimidazoles/chemistry , Drug Design , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzimidazoles/chemical synthesis , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Isomerism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Molecular Conformation , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Front Psychol ; 12: 575684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231384

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation at extended length, although considered as highly effective countermeasures for the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) which started at the end of 2019, can have great impact on individual's mental health, especially emotional state. The present research recruited 5,115 participants from the general public across 32 provinces and autonomous regions in China in an online survey study, about 20 days after the lockdown of the epicenter (Wuhan), to investigate the relationship between the length of the quarantine and negative affect (including depression and anxiety), as well as the mediating roles of negative cognition (including worry and anticipation), and the moderating roles of dispositional optimism, tolerance of uncertainty, social support, and healthy behavior. The results showed that: (1) Worry and anticipation mediated the relationship between quarantine length and depression and anxiety; (2) Dispositional optimism moderated the path coefficients of quarantine length to worry, worry to anxiety, and anticipation to depression; (3) Tolerance of uncertainty moderated the path coefficient of worry to anxiety; (4) Social support moderated the path coefficient of anticipation to anxiety. In conclusion, during quarantine, dispositional optimism, uncertainty tolerance, and social support can buffer the direct or indirect effects of quarantine length on depression and anxiety. These findings could have profound implications on the societal responses to COVID-19 and future pandemics.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2158-2166, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but the relationships between laboratory features and viral load has not been comprehensively described. METHODS: Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 who underwent multiple (≥5 times) nucleic acid tests with nasal and pharyngeal swabs were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including general patients (n = 70), severe patients (n = 195), and critical patients (n = 43). Laboratory data, demographic data, and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The fitted polynomial curve was used to explore the association between serial viral loads and illness severity. RESULTS: Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaked within the first few days (2-4 days) after admission, then decreased rapidly along with virus rebound under treatment. Critical patients had the highest viral loads, in contrast to the general patients showing the lowest viral loads. The viral loads were higher in sputum compared with nasal and pharyngeal swab (P = .026). The positive rate of respiratory tract samples was significantly higher than that of gastrointestinal tract samples (P < .001). The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was negatively correlated with portion parameters of blood routine and lymphocyte subsets and was positively associated with laboratory features of cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: The serial viral loads of patients revealed whole viral shedding during hospitalization and the resurgence of virus during the treatment, which could be used for early warning of illness severity, thus improve antiviral interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(12): 2275-2286, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms during the return-to-work period of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. METHODS: The authors conducted a large-scale, nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study in China. A population-based quota and snowball sampling were designed to recruit a representative sample. Online questionnaires and telephone reviews were used to collect characteristics and assess psychological and sleep problems. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms were measured by the generalized anxiety disorder-7, patient health questionnaire-9, and insomnia severity index tools. RESULTS: A total of 42,000 participants were recruited from 15 centers, and 36,795 valid questionnaires were received. Generally, 18.3, 14.9, and 17.9% of the participants had anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms, respectively, and 2.2-2.7% had severe symptoms. Engaging in outside activity once in ≥ 30 days (OR = 2.719, OR = 2.074, OR = 2.225) and age 50-64 years (OR = 2.431, OR = 1.936, OR = 2.036) were common risk factors for anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms. Living in Hubei Province (OR = 1.304, OR = 1.242) was a common risk factor for anxiety and insomnia symptoms. Working as frontline medical staff (OR = 2.150) was another risk factor for anxiety symptoms. The health education rate of the samples reached 98.9%. However, the psychological intervention rate was only 16.2%, and 2.5% received targeted interventions. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing number of people might have psychological and sleep problems. However, the current psychological interventions are not sufficient. Efforts should be made to strengthen interventions for high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Return to Work , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e77, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND.: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people's psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions. METHODS.: This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants' characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index. RESULTS.: A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0-13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9-2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35-49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS.: Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242043, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919027

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was raging in Wuhan, China and quickly spreading to the rest of the world. This period was fraught with uncertainty for those in the affected areas. The present investigation examined the role of two potential coping resources during this stressful period of uncertainty: flow and mindfulness. Participants in Wuhan and other major cities affected by COVID-19 (N = 5115) completed an online survey assessing subjective experiences of flow, mindfulness, and well-being. Longer quarantine was associated with poorer well-being; flow and mindfulness were associated with better well-being on some measures. However, flow-but not mindfulness-moderated the link between quarantine length and well-being, such that people who experienced high levels flow showed little or no association between quarantine length and poorer well-being. These findings suggest that experiencing flow (typically by engaging in flow-inducing activities) may be a particularly effective way to protect against potentially deleterious effects of a period of quarantine.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emotions , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Mindfulness , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
J Psychosom Res ; 138: 110253, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the authors analyzed the status of anxiety depression and insomnia symptoms and influential factors in the work resumption period of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 2, 2020 to March 8, 2020 in Shandong Province, China, using quota sampling combined with snowball sampling. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to assess the anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the influential factors. RESULTS: A total of 4000 invitations were sent from three centers, 3237 valid questionnaires were received. Based on GAD-7, PHQ-9, and ISI scales, 19.5%-21.7% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms; 2.9%-5.6% had severe symptoms. Besides, 2.4%, 4.8%, and 4.5% of the participants had anxiety-depression, anxiety-insomnia, or depression-insomnia combined symptoms. The scores of anxiety and insomnia symptoms, along with scores of depression and insomnia symptoms were positively correlated in these samples. Aged 50-64 years and outside activities once in ≥30 days were risk factors of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms in common. During the epidemic, 17.4% of the participants had received psychological interventions, and only 5.2% had received individual interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychological distress increased during the outbreak of COVID-19 in the work resumption period than the normal period. Current psychological interventions were insufficient; target psychological interventions should be conducted in time.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Work/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 2993-3000, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679286

ABSTRACT

To scientifically evaluate the intervention effect of Chinese medicine preventive administration(combined use of Huo-xiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) on community population in the case of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), a large cohort, prospective, randomized, and parallel-controlled clinical study was conducted. Total 22 065 subjects were included and randomly divided into 2 groups. The non-intervention group was given health guidance only, while the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) intervention group was given two coordinated TCM in addition to health guidance. The medical instructions were as follows. Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid: oral before meals, 10 mL/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days. Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively. The study found that with the intake of medication, the incidence rate of TCM intervention group was basically maintained at a low and continuous stable level(0.01%-0.02%), while the non-intervention group showed an overall trend of continuous growth(0.02%-0.18%) from 3 to 14 days. No suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case occurred in either group. There were 2 cases of colds in the TCM intervention group and 26 cases in the non-intervention group. The incidence of colds in the TCM intervention group was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the non-intervention group. In the population of 16-60 years old, the incidence rate of non-intervention and intervention groups were 0.01% and 0.25%, respectively. The difference of colds incidence between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). In the population older than 60 years old, they were 0.04% and 0.21%, respectively. The incidence of colds in the non-intervention group was higher than that in the intervention group, but not reaching statistical difference. The protection rate of TCM for the whole population was 91.8%, especially for the population of age 16-60(95.0%). It was suggested that TCM intervention(combined use of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) could effectively protect community residents against respiratory diseases, such as colds, which was worthy of promotion in the community. In addition, in terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions in the TCM intervention group was relatively low, which was basically consistent with the drug instructions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 52(5): 564-573, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638402

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the anxiety and depression levels of frontline clinical nurses working in 14 hospitals in Gansu Province, China, during this period. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online between February 7 and 10, 2020, with a convenience sample of 22,034 nurses working in 14 prefecture and city hospitals in Gansu Province, located in northwest China. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire with four parts (demographic characteristics, general questions related to novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia, self-rating anxiety scale, and self-rating depression scale) was administered. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and SDs were computed. The associations between anxiety and depression with sociodemographic characteristics, work-related concerns, and impacts were analyzed, followed by multiple stepwise linear regression to identify factors that best predicted the nurses' anxiety and depression levels. FINDINGS: A total of 21,199 questionnaires were checked to be valid, with an effective recovery rate of 96.21%. The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 31.89 ± 7.084 years, and the mean ± SD length of service was 9.40 ± 7.638 years. The majority of the respondents were female (98.6%) and married (73.1%). Some demographic characteristics, related concerns, and impacts of COVID-19 were found to be significantly associated with both anxiety (p < .001) and depression (p < .001). Nurses who needed to take care of children or elderly relatives, took leave from work because they were worried about COVID-19, avoided contact with family and friends, and wanted to obtain more COVID-19-related knowledge had higher levels of both anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that nurses faced with the COVID-19 outbreak are at risk for experiencing anxiety and depression. Demographic background, psychosocial factors, and work-related factors predicted the psychological responses. The family responsibilities and burdens of women may explain the higher levels of anxiety and depression among nurses with these obligations as compared to those without. On the other hand, nurses who chose not to take leave from work or who did not avoid going to work during this period were less anxious and depressed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Professional commitment might be a protective factor for adverse psychological responses. It is pertinent to provide emotional support for nurses and recognize their professional commitment in providing service to people in need.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Nursing , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): 645-649, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-336444

ABSTRACT

Since human coronavirus (HCoV)-like particles were detected in the stool specimens of acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing enterocolitis children with electron microscopy, the relationship between HCoV and the pediatric gastrointestinal illness had been recognized. In recent years, the overall detection rates have been low and have varied by region. HCoVs have not been considered as the major pathogens in pediatric acute gastroenteritis. HCoVs detected in children with acute gastroenteritis have included 229E, OC43, HKU1, NL63, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 have also been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in children. Although digestive tract has been recognized as an infection route, it has not been possible to fully investigate the association between HCoVs infection and the gastrointestinal symptoms because of the limited number of pediatric cases. Furthermore, pathologic features have not been clear. Till now, our knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is limited. However, diarrhea and vomiting have been seen in pediatric cases, particularly in newborns and infants. It has been necessary to pay more attention on gastrointestinal transmission to identify the infected children early and avoid the children without apparent or mild symptoms becoming the sources of infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/virology , Gastroenteritis/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/virology
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