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J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021046, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463078


Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event. Methods and Results A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow process times were assessed. Among all 126 patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed with AIS, the median age was 63 years (range, 27-94). There were 35 (27.8%) patients with AIS in the aged ≤55 years group, 47 (37.3%) in the aged 56 to 70 group, and 44 (34.9%) in the aged >70 group. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and thrombectomy rates were comparable across these groups, (P=0.331 and 0.212, respectively). There was a significantly lower rate of mortality between each group favoring younger age (21.9% versus 45.0% versus 48.8%, P=0.047). After multivariable adjustment for possible confounders, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with fewer instances of a favorable outcome of Modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95 CI%, 0.90-0.99; P=0.048) and higher mortality (OR, 1.06; 95 CI%, 1.02-1.10; P=0.007). Conclusions AIS in the context of COVID-19 affects young patients at much greater rates than pre-pandemic controls. Nevertheless, instances of poor functional outcome and mortality are closely tied to increasing age.

COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E693-E702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278708


BACKGROUND: Identification of therapies to prevent severe COVID-19 remains a priority. We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine treatment for outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could prevent hospitalization, mechanical ventilation or death. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Alberta during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic without direct contact with participants. Community-dwelling individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] viral ribonucleic acid test) within the previous 4 days, and symptom onset within the previous 12 days, were randomly assigned to oral hydroxychloroquine or matching placebo for 5 days. Enrolment began Apr. 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation or death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included symptom duration and disposition at 30 days. Safety outcomes, such as serious adverse events and mortality, were also ascertained. Outcomes were determined by telephone follow-up and administrative data. RESULTS: Among 4919 individuals with a positive RT-PCR test, 148 (10.2% of a planned 1446 patients) were randomly assigned, 111 to hydroxychloroquine and 37 to placebo. Of the 148 participants, 24 (16.2%) did not start the study drug. Four participants in the hydroxychloroquine group met the primary outcome (4 hospitalizations, 0 mechanical ventilation, 4 survived to 30 days) and none in the placebo group. Hydroxychloroquine did not reduce symptom duration (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.49-1.21). Recruitment was paused on May 22, 2020, when a since-retracted publication raised concerns about the safety of hydroxychloroquine for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Although we had not identified concerns in a safety review, enrolment was slower than expected among those eligible for the study, and cases within the community were decreasing. Recruitment goals were deemed to be unattainable and the trial was not resumed, resulting in a study underpowered to assess the effect of treatment with hydroxychloroquine and safety. INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence that hydroxychloroquine reduced symptom duration or prevented severe outcomes among outpatients with proven COVID-19, but the early termination of our study meant that it was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, no. NCT04329611.

Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Preventive Health Services/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
Stroke ; 51(6): 1891-1895, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-26794


Background and Purpose- Hyperacute assessment and management of patients with stroke, termed code stroke, is a time-sensitive and high-stakes clinical scenario. In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the ability to deliver timely and efficacious care must be balanced with the risk of infectious exposure to the clinical team. Furthermore, rapid and effective stroke care remains paramount to achieve maximal functional recovery for those needing admission and to triage care appropriately for those who may be presenting with neurological symptoms but have an alternative diagnosis. Methods- Available resources, COVID-19-specific infection prevention and control recommendations, and expert consensus were used to identify clinical screening criteria for patients and provide the required nuanced considerations for the healthcare team, thereby modifying the conventional code stroke processes to achieve a protected designation. Results- A protected code stroke algorithm was developed. Features specific to prenotification and clinical status of the patient were used to define precode screening. These include primary infectious symptoms, clinical, and examination features. A focused framework was then developed with regard to a protected code stroke. We outline the specifics of personal protective equipment use and considerations thereof including aspects of crisis resource management impacting team role designation and human performance factors during a protected code stroke. Conclusions- We introduce the concept of a protected code stroke during a pandemic, as in the case of COVID-19, and provide a framework for key considerations including screening, personal protective equipment, and crisis resource management. These considerations and suggested algorithms can be utilized and adapted for local practice.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Triage/methods , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications