Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
2.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(4): e13218, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311043

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have profound effects on healthcare systems, but little evidence exists on service provision, utilisation, or adaptations. This study aimed to (1) examine the changes to health and nutrition service delivery and utilisation in urban Bangladesh during and after enforcement of COVID-19 restrictions and (2) identify adaptations and potential solutions to strengthen delivery and uptake. We conducted longitudinal surveys with health care providers (n = 45), pregnant women (n = 40), and mothers of children <2 years (n = 387) in February 2020 (in-person) and September 2020 (by phone). We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests to compare the changes before and during the pandemic. Services delivery for women and children which require proximity were severely affected; weight and height measurements fell by 20-29 percentage points (pp) for pregnant women and 37-57 pp for children, and child immunisations fell by 38 pp. Declines in service utilisation were large, including drops in facility visitations (35 pp among pregnant women and 67 pp among mothers), health and nutrition counselling (up to 73 pp), child weight measurements (50 pp), and immunisations (61 pp). The primary method of adaptation was provision of services over phone (37% for antenatal care services, 44%-49% for counselling). Despite adaptations to service provision, continued availability of routine maternal and child health services did not translate into service utilisation. Further investments are needed to provide timely and accurate information on COVID-19 to the general public, improve COVID-19 training and provide incentives for health care providers and ensure availability of personal protective equipment for providers and beneficiaries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Nutr ; 151(8): 2305-2316, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may substantially affect health systems, but little primary evidence is available on disruption of health and nutrition services. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to 1) determine the extent of disruption in provision and utilization of health and nutrition services induced by the pandemic in Uttar Pradesh, India; and 2) identify how adaptations were made to restore service provision in response to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal surveys with frontline workers (FLWs, n = 313) and mothers of children <2 y old (n = 659) in December 2019 (in-person) and July 2020 (by phone). We also interviewed block-level managers and obtained administrative data. We examined changes in service provision and utilization using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. RESULTS: Compared with prepandemic, service provision reduced substantially during lockdown (83-98 percentage points, pp), except for home visits and take-home rations (∼30%). Most FLWs (68%-90%) restored service provision in July 2020, except for immunization and hot cooked meals (<10%). Administrative data showed similar patterns of disruption and restoration. FLW fears, increased workload, inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE), and manpower shortages challenged service provision. Key adaptations made to provide services were delivering services to beneficiary homes (∼40%-90%), social distancing (80%), and using PPE (40%-50%) and telephones for communication (∼20%). On the demand side, service utilization reduced substantially (40-80 pp) during the lockdown, but about half of mothers received home visits and food supplementation. Utilization for most services did not improve after the lockdown, bearing the challenges of limited travel (30%), nonavailability of services (26%), and fear of catching the virus when leaving the house (22%) or meeting service providers (14%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 disrupted the provision and use of health and nutrition services in Uttar Pradesh, India, despite adaptations to restore services. Strengthening logistical support, capacity enhancement, performance management, and demand creation are needed to improve service provision and utilization during and post-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Services , Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Telephone
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e048738, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has profound negative impacts on people's lives, but little is known on its effect on household food insecurity (HFI) in poor setting resources. This study assessed changes in HFI during the pandemic and examined the interlinkages between HFI with child feeding practices and coping strategies. DESIGN: A longitudinal survey in December 2019 (in-person) and August 2020 (by phone). SETTING: Community-based individuals from 26 blocks in 2 districts in Uttar Pradesh, India. PARTICIPANTS: Mothers with children <2 years (n=569). MAIN OUTCOMES AND ANALYSES: We measured HFI by using the HFI Access Scale and examined the changes in HFI during the pandemic using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. We then assessed child feeding practices and coping strategies by HFI status using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: HFI increased sharply from 21% in December 2019 to 80% in August 2020, with 62% households changing the status from food secure to insecure over this period. Children in newly or consistently food-insecure households were less likely to consume a diverse diet (adjusted OR, AOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.95 and AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.12, respectively) compared with those in food-secure households. Households with consistent food insecurity were more likely to engage in coping strategies such as reducing other essential non-food expenditures (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.24), borrowing money to buy food (AOR 4.3, 95% CI 2.31 to 7.95) or selling jewellery (AOR 5.0, 95% CI 1.74 to 14.27) to obtain foods. Similar findings were observed for newly food-insecure households. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown measures posed a significant risk to HFI which in turn had implications for child feeding practices and coping strategies. Our findings highlight the need for further investment in targeted social protection strategies and safety nets as part of multisectoral solutions to improve HFI during and after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Food Supply , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet ; 397(10282): 1400-1418, 2021 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118736

ABSTRACT

As the world counts down to the 2025 World Health Assembly nutrition targets and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, millions of women, children, and adolescents worldwide remain undernourished (underweight, stunted, and deficient in micronutrients), despite evidence on effective interventions and increasing political commitment to, and financial investment in, nutrition. The COVID-19 pandemic has crippled health systems, exacerbated household food insecurity, and reversed economic growth, which together could set back improvements in undernutrition across low-income and middle-income countries. This paper highlights how the evidence base for nutrition, health, food systems, social protection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions has evolved since the 2013 Lancet Series on maternal and child nutrition and identifies the priority actions needed to regain and accelerate progress within the next decade. Policies and interventions targeting the first 1000 days of life, including some newly identified since 2013, require renewed commitment, implementation research, and increased funding from both domestic and global actors. A new body of evidence from national and state-level success stories in stunting reduction reinforces the crucial importance of multisectoral actions to address the underlying determinants of undernutrition and identifies key features of enabling political environments. To support these actions, well-resourced nutrition data and information systems are essential. The paper concludes with a call to action for the 2021 Nutrition for Growth Summit to unite global and national nutrition stakeholders around common priorities to tackle a large, unfinished undernutrition agenda-now amplified by the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Health Policy , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Sustainable Development , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Female , Food Insecurity , Health Policy/economics , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Determinants of Health , Sustainable Development/economics
9.
Lancet ; 397(10282): 1388-1399, 2021 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118733

ABSTRACT

13 years after the first Lancet Series on maternal and child undernutrition, we reviewed the progress achieved on the basis of global estimates and new analyses of 50 low-income and middle-income countries with national surveys from around 2000 and 2015. The prevalence of childhood stunting has fallen, and linear growth faltering in early life has become less pronounced over time, markedly in middle-income countries but less so in low-income countries. Stunting and wasting remain public health problems in low-income countries, where 4·7% of children are simultaneously affected by both, a condition associated with a 4·8-times increase in mortality. New evidence shows that stunting and wasting might already be present at birth, and that the incidence of both conditions peaks in the first 6 months of life. Global low birthweight prevalence declined slowly at about 1·0% a year. Knowledge has accumulated on the short-term and long-term consequences of child undernutrition and on its adverse effect on adult human capital. Existing data on vitamin A deficiency among children suggest persisting high prevalence in Africa and south Asia. Zinc deficiency affects close to half of all children in the few countries with data. New evidence on the causes of poor growth points towards subclinical inflammation and environmental enteric dysfunction. Among women of reproductive age, the prevalence of low body-mass index has been reduced by half in middle-income countries, but trends in short stature prevalence are less evident. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes for mothers and their children, whereas data on gestational weight gain are scarce. Data on the micronutrient status of women are conspicuously scarce, which constitutes an unacceptable data gap. Prevalence of anaemia in women remains high and unabated in many countries. Social inequalities are evident for many forms of undernutrition in women and children, suggesting a key role for poverty and low education, and reinforcing the need for multisectoral actions to accelerate progress. Despite little progress in some areas, maternal and child undernutrition remains a major global health concern, particularly as improvements since 2000 might be offset by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Adult , Body Mass Index , Breast Feeding , Child , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Mothers , Poverty , Social Determinants of Health
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL