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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21582, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160317


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic devastated countries worldwide, and resulted in a global shutdown. Not all infections are symptomatic and hence the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community is unknown. The paper presents the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the Greater Accra Metropolis, describing the evolution of seroprevalence through time and by age group. Three repeated independent population-based surveys at 6-week intervals were conducted in from November 2020 to July 2021. The global and by age-groups weighted seroprevalences were estimated and the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity were assessed using logistic regression. The overall age-standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence for both spike and nucleocapsid increased from 13.8% (95% CI 11.9, 16.1) in November 2020 to 39.6% (95% CI 34.8, 44.6) in July 2021. After controlling for gender, marital status, education level, and occupation, the older age group over 40 years had a higher odds of seropositivity than the younger age group (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) in the final survey. Pupils or students had 3.3-fold increased odds of seropositivity (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) compared to the unemployed. This study reinforces that, SARS-CoV-2 infections have been significantly higher than reported.

COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Ghana/epidemiology , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065156


BACKGROUND: Mass test, treat and track (MTTT) of malaria is ongoing in the Pakro sub district of Ghana. In the delivery of MTTT of malaria, community health volunteers are trained to routinely provide this service through a door-to-door strategy. Following the report of the first cases of COVID-19 in Ghana, we conducted this study to explore the effects of the pandemic on the implementation of the MTTT of malaria intervention. METHODS: Using qualitative methodology, we conducted ten focus groups discussions (FGDs) in eight communities: eight with community members (N = 49); one with health workers (N = 6), and one with MTTT of malaria volunteers. In addition, two in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted, one with health worker and another with a health manager. All interviews were recorded, translated into English during transcription and analysed using QSR NVivo 12. Thematic content analysis was used in this study. RESULTS: The findings of the study showed an increase in the number of people reporting with complications of malaria in health facilities in the study communities during the COVID-19 period. Some participants were of the view that COVID-19 rumours and misinformation could largely be responsible for the low coverage and uptake of the MTTT of malaria intervention. To sustain the uptake of the MTTT intervention, community engagement strategies were employed to identify and respond to these rumours. Also, incentive schemes were introduced to encourage parents and children to participate in the MTTT intervention during this period of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the provision and uptake of malaria prevention and treatment services, especially the MTTT of malaria being implemented at the community level. These observations underscore the need to find innovative ways to address the challenges encountered in providing essential services during public health emergencies.

COVID-19 , Malaria , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rural Population