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2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(662): eabn5168, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308193

ABSTRACT

Although it has been more than 2 years since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, COVID-19 continues to be a worldwide health crisis. Despite the development of preventive vaccines, therapies to treat COVID-19 and other inflammatory diseases remain a major unmet need in medicine. Our study sought to identify drivers of disease severity and mortality to develop tailored immunotherapy strategies to halt disease progression. We assembled the Mount Sinai COVID-19 Biobank, which was composed of almost 600 hospitalized patients followed longitudinally through the peak of the pandemic in 2020. Moderate disease and survival were associated with a stronger antigen presentation and effector T cell signature. In contrast, severe disease and death were associated with an altered antigen presentation signature, increased numbers of inflammatory immature myeloid cells, and extrafollicular activated B cells that have been previously associated with autoantibody formation. In severely ill patients with COVID-19, lung tissue-resident alveolar macrophages not only were drastically depleted but also had an altered antigen presentation signature, which coincided with an influx of inflammatory monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. In addition, we found that the size of the alveolar macrophage pool correlated with patient outcome and that alveolar macrophage numbers and functionality were restored to homeostasis in patients who recovered from COVID-19. These data suggest that local and systemic myeloid cell dysregulation are drivers of COVID-19 severity and modulation of alveolar macrophage numbers and activity in the lung may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of critical inflammatory lung diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages, Alveolar , Humans , Lung , Macrophages , Monocytes
3.
Mol Syst Biol ; 19(5): e11361, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270759

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation comprises a cumulative record of lifetime exposures superimposed on genetically determined markers. Little is known about methylation dynamics in humans following an acute perturbation, such as infection. We characterized the temporal trajectory of blood epigenetic remodeling in 133 participants in a prospective study of young adults before, during, and after asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The differential methylation caused by asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infections was indistinguishable. While differential gene expression largely returned to baseline levels after the virus became undetectable, some differentially methylated sites persisted for months of follow-up, with a pattern resembling autoimmune or inflammatory disease. We leveraged these responses to construct methylation-based machine learning models that distinguished samples from pre-, during-, and postinfection time periods, and quantitatively predicted the time since infection. The clinical trajectory in the young adults and in a diverse cohort with more severe outcomes was predicted by the similarity of methylation before or early after SARS-CoV-2 infection to the model-defined postinfection state. Unlike the phenomenon of trained immunity, the postacute SARS-CoV-2 epigenetic landscape we identify is antiprotective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Prospective Studies , DNA Methylation/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 70: 104486, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other disorders treated with immunomodulatory therapies remain concerned about suboptimal responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Important questions persist regarding immunological response to third vaccines, particularly with respect to newer virus variants. The objective of this study is to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to a third COVID-19 vaccine dose in people on anti-CD20 therapy and sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators, including Omicron-specific assays. METHODS: This is an observational study evaluating immunological responses to third COVID-19 vaccine dose in participants treated with anti-CD20 agents, S1PR modulators, and healthy controls. Neutralizing antibodies against USA-WA1/2020 (WA1) and B.1.1.529 (BA.1) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were measured before and after third vaccine. Groups were compared by one-way ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparisons. Cellular responses to spike peptide pools generated from WA1 and BA.1 were evaluated. Pre-post comparisons were made by Wilcoxon paired t-tests, inter-cohort comparisons by Mann-Whitney t-test. RESULTS: This cohort includes 25 participants on anti-CD20 therapy, 12 on S1PR modulators, and 14 healthy controls. Among those on anti-CD20 therapy, neutralizing antibodies to WA1 were significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (ID50% GM post-vaccination of 8.1 ± 2.8 in anti-CD20 therapy group vs 452.6 ± 8.442 healthy controls, P < 0.0001) and neutralizing antibodies to BA.1 were below the threshold of detection nearly universally. However, cellular responses, including to Omicron-specific peptides, were not significantly different from controls. Among those on S1PR modulators, neutralizing antibodies to WA1 were detected in a minority, and only 3/12 had neutralizing antibodies just at the limit of detection to BA.1. Cellular responses to Spike antigen in those on S1PR modulators were reduced by a factor of 100 compared to controls (median 0.0008% vs. 0.08%, p < 0.001) and were not significantly "boosted" by a third injection. CONCLUSIONS: Participants on anti-CD20 and S1PR modulator therapies had impaired antibody neutralization capacity, particularly to BA.1, even after a third vaccine. T cell responses were not affected by anti-CD20 therapies, but were nearly abrogated by S1PR modulators. These results have clinical implications warranting further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Sphingosine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
5.
Nat Med ; 29(1): 236-246, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160251

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are debilitating, clinically heterogeneous and of unknown molecular etiology. A transcriptome-wide investigation was performed in 165 acutely infected hospitalized individuals who were followed clinically into the post-acute period. Distinct gene expression signatures of post-acute sequelae were already present in whole blood during acute infection, with innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in different symptoms. Two clusters of sequelae exhibited divergent plasma-cell-associated gene expression patterns. In one cluster, sequelae associated with higher expression of immunoglobulin-related genes in an anti-spike antibody titer-dependent manner. In the other, sequelae associated independently of these titers with lower expression of immunoglobulin-related genes, indicating lower non-specific antibody production in individuals with these sequelae. This relationship between lower total immunoglobulins and sequelae was validated in an external cohort. Altogether, multiple etiologies of post-acute sequelae were already detectable during SARS-CoV-2 infection, directly linking these sequelae with the acute host response to the virus and providing early insights into their development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
7.
PLoS Genet ; 18(11): e1010367, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098659

ABSTRACT

Host genetics is a key determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Previously, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study used common variants to identify multiple loci associated with COVID-19 outcomes. However, variants with the largest impact on COVID-19 outcomes are expected to be rare in the population. Hence, studying rare variants may provide additional insights into disease susceptibility and pathogenesis, thereby informing therapeutics development. Here, we combined whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing from 21 cohorts across 12 countries and performed rare variant exome-wide burden analyses for COVID-19 outcomes. In an analysis of 5,085 severe disease cases and 571,737 controls, we observed that carrying a rare deleterious variant in the SARS-CoV-2 sensor toll-like receptor TLR7 (on chromosome X) was associated with a 5.3-fold increase in severe disease (95% CI: 2.75-10.05, p = 5.41x10-7). This association was consistent across sexes. These results further support TLR7 as a genetic determinant of severe disease and suggest that larger studies on rare variants influencing COVID-19 outcomes could provide additional insights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exome , Humans , Exome/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 52, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008285

ABSTRACT

Recent efforts have identified genetic loci that are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection rates and disease outcome severity. Translating these genetic findings into druggable genes that reduce COVID-19 host susceptibility is a critical next step. Using a translational genomics approach that integrates COVID-19 genetic susceptibility variants, multi-tissue genetically regulated gene expression (GReX), and perturbagen signatures, we identified IL10RB as the top candidate gene target for COVID-19 host susceptibility. In a series of validation steps, we show that predicted GReX upregulation of IL10RB and higher IL10RB expression in COVID-19 patient blood is associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes and that in vitro IL10RB overexpression is associated with increased viral load and activation of disease-relevant molecular pathways.

9.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(11): 1680-1689, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890202

ABSTRACT

Fast, high-throughput methods for measuring the level and duration of protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to anticipate the risk of breakthrough infections. Here we report the development of two quantitative PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activation. The assays are rapid, internally normalized and probe-based: qTACT requires RNA extraction and dqTACT avoids sample preparation steps. Both assays rely on the quantification of CXCL10 messenger RNA, a chemokine whose expression is strongly correlated with activation of antigen-specific T cells. On restimulation of whole-blood cells with SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens, viral-specific T cells secrete IFN-γ, which stimulates monocytes to produce CXCL10. CXCL10 mRNA can thus serve as a proxy to quantify cellular immunity. Our assays may allow large-scale monitoring of the magnitude and duration of functional T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2, thus helping to prioritize revaccination strategies in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Immunity, Cellular , Polymerase Chain Reaction , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Science ; 375(6585): 1122-1127, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736000

ABSTRACT

Considerable research effort has been made worldwide to decipher the immune response triggered upon severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, identify the drivers of severe and fatal COVID-19, and understand what leads to the prolongation of symptoms after disease resolution. We review the results of almost 2 years of COVID-19 immunology research and discuss definitive findings and remaining questions regarding our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology. We discuss emerging understanding of differences in immune responses seen in those with and without Long Covid syndrome, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2. We hope that the knowledge gained from this COVID-19 research will be applied in studies of inflammatory processes involved in critical and chronic illnesses, which remain a major unmet need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
11.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 194-202, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671599

ABSTRACT

The world continues to contend with successive waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), fueled by the emergence of viral variants. At the same time, persistent, prolonged and often debilitating sequelae are increasingly recognized in convalescent individuals, named 'post-COVID-19 syndrome' or 'long-haul COVID'. Clinical symptomatology includes fatigue, malaise, dyspnea, defects in memory and concentration and a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes as the major manifestations, and several organ systems can be involved. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood at present. This Review details organ-specific sequelae of post-COVID-19 syndromes and examines the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms available so far, elaborating on persistent inflammation, induced autoimmunity and putative viral reservoirs. Finally, we propose diagnostic strategies to better understand this heterogeneous disorder that continues to afflict millions of people worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabm7853, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630954

ABSTRACT

A damaging inflammatory response is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but mechanisms contributing to this response are unclear. In two prospective cohorts, early non-neutralizing, afucosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with progression from mild to more severe COVID-19. To study the biology of afucosylated IgG immune complexes, we developed an in vivo model that revealed that human IgG-Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions could regulate inflammation in the lung. Afucosylated IgG immune complexes isolated from patients with COVID-19 induced inflammatory cytokine production and robust infiltration of the lung by immune cells. In contrast to the antibody structures that were associated with disease progression, antibodies that were elicited by messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly fucosylated and enriched in sialylation, both modifications that reduce the inflammatory potential of IgG. Vaccine-elicited IgG did not promote an inflammatory lung response. These results show that human IgG-FcγR interactions regulate inflammation in the lung and define distinct lung activities mediated by the IgG that are associated with protection against, or progression to, severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(5): 275, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550310
16.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750490

ABSTRACT

Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.

17.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2676-2680, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499987

ABSTRACT

The 2005 Immunity paper by Karikó et al. has been hailed as a cornerstone insight that directly led to the design and delivery of the mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. We asked experts in pathogen sensing, vaccine development, and public health to provide their perspective on the study and its implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccine Development/history , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Animals , History, 21st Century , Humans , RNA, Messenger/immunology , World Health Organization
18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1043-1047, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309197

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 arises from the convergence of inadequate pre-existing immunity and a host response that damages, rather than repairs, tissues. We outline clinical presentations of COVID-19 that are likely driven by dysregulated host immunity, discuss potential mechanisms underlying pathological responses, and highlight important areas for basic research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Immunity , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1040-1042, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309194

ABSTRACT

A previously immune-naive world population is experiencing natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. Severe COVID-19 predominantly impacts adults, yet multisystem inflammatory disorder primarily impacts children. Herein, we discuss known clinical and biological features of SARS-CoV-2 in children and reflect on currently identified immune features and discuss what remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13308, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281741

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients but the nature of the gut immune response to SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly characterized, partly due to the difficulty of obtaining biopsy specimens from infected individuals. In lieu of tissue samples, we measured cytokines, inflammatory markers, viral RNA, microbiome composition, and antibody responses in stool samples from a cohort of 44 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in stool of 41% of patients and more frequently in patients with diarrhea. Patients who survived had lower fecal viral RNA than those who died. Strains isolated from stool and nasopharynx of an individual were the same. Compared to uninfected controls, COVID-19 patients had higher fecal levels of IL-8 and lower levels of fecal IL-10. Stool IL-23 was higher in patients with more severe COVID-19 disease, and we found evidence of intestinal virus-specific IgA responses associated with more severe disease. We provide evidence for an ongoing humeral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal tract, but little evidence of overt inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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