Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866910

ABSTRACT

Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, endothelium imbalance, chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and its comorbidities may all have a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the pulmonary fibrosis and cytokine storm, which leads to failure of lung function, which is a hallmark of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Obesity may also disrupt the function of mucociliary escalators and cooperation of epithelial cell's motile cilia in the airway, limiting the clearance of the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Adipose tissues in obese patients have a greater number of proteases and receptors for SARS-CoV-2 admittance, proposing that they could serve as an accelerator and reservoir for this virus, boosting immunological response and systemic inflammation. Lastly, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as anti-IL-6 and the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells could be used as a modulation therapy of immunity to help COVID-19 patients. Obesity, on the other hand, is linked to the progress of COVID-19 through a variety of molecular pathways, and obese people are part of the SARS-CoV-2 susceptible individuals, necessitating more protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113089, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821149

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and it is the leading cause of a wide range of costly complications. Diabetes is linked to a multi-fold increase in mortality and when compared to non-diabetics, the intensity and prevalence of COVID-19 ailment among diabetic individuals are more. Since its discovery in Wuhan, COVID-19 has grown rapidly and shown a wide range of severity. Temperature, lymphopenia, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and tiredness are recognized as the characteristic of individuals infected with COVID-19 disease. In COVID-19 patients, diabetes and other related comorbidities are substantial predictors of disease and mortality. According to a recent study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for covid-19 disease) may also lead to direct pancreatic harm, which could aggravate hyperglycemia and potentially cause the establishment of diabetes in formerly non-diabetic individuals. This bidirectional association of COVID-19 and diabetes load the burden on health care professionals throughout the world. It is recommended that gliptin medications be taken moderately, blood glucose levels must be kept under control, ACE inhibitors should be used in moderation, decrease the number of avoidable hospitalizations, nutritional considerations, and some other prevention measures, such as immunization, are highly recommended. SARS-CoV-2 may cause pleiotropic changes in glucose homeostasis, which could exacerbate the pathophysiology of pre-existing diabetes or result in new disease processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820220

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Recent studies in Saudi Arabia have indicated that a small proportion of the population is hesitant to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to uncertainty about their safety. The objective of this study was therefore to examine concerns about COVID-19 vaccines in Saudi Arabia; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed Saudi residents aged 14 years and older. The online questionnaire consisted of the following sections: (1) demographics; (2) knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines and sources of information; (3) COVID-19 vaccines worry scale; and (4) opinions about restrictions placed on unvaccinated individuals in Saudi Arabia. An adjusted regression model was computed to examine the relationships between demographic factors and worry about COVID-19 vaccines. All analyses were stratified by age, with those aged 19 years and above considered adults and those aged younger than 19 years considered as adolescents; (3) Results: A total of 1002 respondents completed the survey. Of the study sample, 870 were aged ≥19 years and 132 were aged <19 years. Of the adults in the study sample, 52% either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, "I am worried about the potential side effects of COVID-19 vaccinations in children". Among adults, females demonstrated higher levels of worry about COVID-19 vaccines than males (ß = 1.142; p = 0.004) in the adjusted analyses. A high percentage of the participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed with allowing unvaccinated individuals to enter malls, schools, universities or to live freely without restrictions; (4) Conclusions: A high proportion of individuals in Saudi Arabia are concerned about possible side effects of COVID-19 vaccines, and many believe that unvaccinated individuals should not be restricted from participating in public life. It is therefore crucial to provide easily accessible information on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in order to accelerate vaccination and minimize hesitancy regarding any future vaccinations that may be necessary.

4.
PLoS ONE Vol 16(8), 2021, ArtID e0256597 ; 16(8), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1801530

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study objectives were to investigate maternal psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, mothers' perceptions of the information available regarding children and COVID-19, changes in children's behavior during lockdown, and concerns of pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed women aged 18 years and older who either had children under 10 years of age or were pregnant at the time of the survey. The outcomes included psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, change in children's behaviors during COVID-19 lockdown and pregnant women's concerns. Multivariable ordinary least squares regression models were employed to examine the adjusted associations between sociodemographic factors and psychological distress, as well as fear of COVID-19. Results: Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children's behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (beta = -1.346;p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income >= US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (beta = 2.424;p < 0.001) or mental (beta = 4.733;p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (beta = 2.602;p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house. Conclusions: Most mothers and expectant mothers in our study had moderate to high levels of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Education, family income and chronic mental and physical conditions were associated with high psychological distress in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-16, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734062

ABSTRACT

Exercise addiction (EA) has been described as a condition of psychological dysfunction characterized by excessive and obsessive exercise patterns, show withdrawal symptoms when unable to exercise, and experience numerous conflicts and other negative consequences in their social and professional lives, due to the extremely high volumes of exercise. The main objective of the present study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction among a Saudi Arabian sample of regular exercisers and to investigate possible associations between their inability to exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (due to the closure of public gyms, swimming pools, and health clubs) and depression, anxiety, and loneliness. A total of 388 regular-exercising Saudis participated in an online cross-sectional survey over three months (December to February 2021). The study sample comprised 89.9% (males) and 10.1% (females), with a mean age of 28.59 years (SD ± 6.69). A 36-item online self-report survey was used for data collection. The prevalence of being at risk of exercise addiction among participants of the present study was 13.1%. Positive significant associations were noted between risk of exercise addiction and depression (r = .41; p < .01), risk of exercise addiction and anxiety (r = .20; p < .01), and risk of exercise addiction and loneliness (r = .17; p < .01). The findings of the present study suggest that those individuals at risk of exercise addiction might also be at an elevated risk of developing negative psychological impact owing to the disruption of the amount of exercise engaged in due to COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions and therefore these high-risk individuals should receive appropriate psychological support to help them overcome the negative impact of the ongoing pandemic. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02892-8.

6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(12): 1341-1352, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the self-reported vaccine-related side effects among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the Jazan province, Saudi Arabia, and determine the associated socio-demographic factors. With the recent second and third waves of coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) infections worldwide, the race is not only to encourage but also to achieve mass vaccination. METHODS: A total of 397 HCPs from across Jazan province participated in an anonymous online cross-sectional survey conducted for a period of 45 days (March 30, 2021 to May 13, 2021) in Jazan province, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a validated 22-items self-report survey. RESULTS: For both COVID-19 vaccines, majority of reports were related to flu-like symptoms including fever, chills, headache, fatigue, tiredness, and myalgia. Statistically significant associations were observed between the severity of side effects and gender (χ2=73.32; p<0.001), type of vaccine (χ2=112.08; p<0.001), and presence of known allergies (χ2=99.69; p<0.001). Female HCPs were more likely to report any side effects compared with male HCPs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.72; p<0.001). Furthermore, HCPs with known allergies were more likely to report any side effects than their counterparts with unknown allergies (AOR: 16.29; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study would help in designing educational programs aimed at combating the misconstrued fear of vaccination and highlighting the urgent need of getting vaccinated. This study also helps in the identification of factors affecting the presence and severity of side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(11): 1329-1335, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected hundreds of thousands of people across more than 200 countries. As the pandemic continues, the health agencies, worldwide, are recommending strict preventive practices to avert its transmission at community scale. We sought to predict the behavior of the Saudi population for adopting community preventive practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire consisting of 22 items pertaining to the Health Belief Model constructs was used to measure the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of contracting COVID-19, along with the perceived benefits and perceived barriers to follow the Ministry of Health's recommendations. The outcome was assessed by their readiness to be compliant with the community protective measures. Data were analyzed using STATA at significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 900 individuals received the online survey link, of which 688 (response rate: 76.4%) respondents consented to participate in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 31.39 (SD = 8.94). Positive associations were observed between perceived susceptibility (Beta: 0.24; p value < 0.001), perceived severity (Beta: 0.16; p value < 0.001), perceived benefits (Beta: 0.41; p value < 0.001), cue to action (Beta: 2.61; p value < 0.001) and the participation in community preventive practices during the pandemic of the COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Health belief model's constructs of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and cue to action can be adopted to help strengthen COVID-19 limiting behaviors and prevention programs which can delivered through community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia as well as around the world.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256597, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study objectives were to investigate maternal psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, mothers' perceptions of the information available regarding children and COVID-19, changes in children's behavior during lockdown, and concerns of pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed women aged 18 years and older who either had children under 10 years of age or were pregnant at the time of the survey. The outcomes included psychological distress, mothers' fear of their children contracting COVID-19, change in children's behaviors during COVID-19 lockdown and pregnant women's concerns. Multivariable ordinary least squares regression models were employed to examine the adjusted associations between sociodemographic factors and psychological distress, as well as fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 628 women, 11.8% (n = 74) were pregnant at the time of survey. Most of the pregnant women (89.2%, n = 66) had some degree of concerns about their unborn babies getting infected during delivery in the hospital. Among mothers of children under 10 years of age (n = 564), half (n = 282) reported change in their children's behavior during the lockdown. Most mothers and pregnant women (94.9%, n = 569) had some degree of psychological distress. Mothers and pregnant women with a college degree had significantly lower psychological distress (ß = -1.346; p = 0.014) than women with a high school education or less. Similarly, mothers and pregnant women with monthly family income ≥ US$ 1,333 had lower psychological distress than those with < US$ 1,333. Women with pre-existing chronic physical (ß = 2.424; p < 0.001) or mental (ß = 4.733; p < 0.001) conditions had higher psychological distress than those without these conditions. Having children in the house was a contributory factor for higher psychological distress. For example, mothers with one child (ß = 2.602; p = 0.007) had significantly higher psychological distress compared to expectant mothers without children in the house. CONCLUSIONS: Most mothers and expectant mothers in our study had moderate to high levels of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Education, family income and chronic mental and physical conditions were associated with high psychological distress in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Mothers/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247858

ABSTRACT

Plants have been extensively studied since ancient times and numerous important chemical constituents with tremendous therapeutic potential are identified. Attacks of microorganisms including viruses and bacteria can be counteracted with an efficient immune system and therefore, stimulation of body's defense mechanism against infections has been proven to be an effective approach. Polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and lactones are the important phytochemicals, reported to be primarily responsible for immunomodulation activity of the plants. These phytochemicals may act as lead molecules for the development of safe and effective immunomodulators as potential remedies for the prevention and cure of viral diseases. Natural products are known to primarily modulate the immune system in nonspecific ways. A number of plant-based principles have been identified and isolated with potential immunomodulation activity which justify their use in traditional folklore medicine and can form the basis of further specified research. The aim of the current review is to describe and highlight the immunomodulation potential of certain plants along with their bioactive chemical constituents. Relevant literatures of recent years were searched from commonly employed scientific databases on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. Most of the plants displaying considerable immunomodulation activity are summarized along with their possible mechanisms. These discussions shall hopefully elicit the attention of researchers and encourage further studies on these plant-based immunomodulation products as potential therapy for the management of infectious diseases, including viral ones such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complementary Therapies/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Immunomodulation , Plants, Medicinal , Terpenes/therapeutic use
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 482, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789315

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a "pandemic" by the World Health Organization (WHO) in early March 2020. Globally, extraordinary measures are being adopted to combat the formidable spread of the ongoing outbreak. Under such conditions, people's adherence to preventive measures is greatly affected by their awareness of the disease. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the level of awareness and preparedness to fight against COVID-19 among the healthcare workers (HCWs) and other residents of the South-West Saudi Arabia. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-developed structured questionnaire that was randomly distributed online among HCWs and other residents (age ≥ 12 years) of South-West Saudi Arabia for feedback. The collected data were analyzed using Stata 15 statistical software. Results: Among 1,000 participants, 36.7% were HCWs, 53.9% were female, and 44.1% were aged ≥ 30 years. Majority of respondents showed awareness of COVID-19 (98.7%) as a deadly, contagious, and life-threatening disease (99.6%) that is transmitted through human-to-human contact (97.7%). They were familiar with the associated symptoms and common causes of COVID-19. Health organizations were chosen as the most reliable source of information by majority of the participants (89.6%). Hand hygiene (92.7%) and social distancing (92.3%) were the most common preventive measures taken by respondents that were followed by avoiding traveling (86.9%) to an infected area or country and wearing face masks (86.5%). Significant proportions of HCWs (P < 0.05) and more educated participants (P < 0.05) showed considerable knowledge of the disease, and all respondents displayed good preparedness for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Age, gender, and area were non-significant predictors of COVID-19 awareness. Conclusion: As the global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it is critical to improve the awareness and preparedness of the targeted community members, especially the less educated ones. Educational interventions are urgently needed to reach the targeted residents beyond borders and further measures are warranted. The outcome of this study highlighted a growing need for the adoption of innovative local strategies to improve awareness in general population related to COVID-19 and its preventative practices in order to meet its elimination goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL