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Euro Surveill ; 27(17)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834262


IntroductionIn France, three complementary surveillance networks involving hospitals and paediatrician practices currently allow pertussis surveillance among infants (<1 year old) and children (1-12 years old). Data on incidences among adolescents (13-17 years old) and adults (≥ 18 years) are scarce. In 2017, a sentinel surveillance system called Sentinelles network, was implemented among general practitioners (GPs).AimThe purpose of Sentinelles network is to assess pertussis incidence, monitor the cases' age distribution and evaluate the impact of the country's vaccination policy. We present the results from the first 4 years of this surveillance.MethodsGPs of the French Sentinelles network reported weekly numbers of epidemiologically or laboratory-confirmed cases and their characteristics.ResultsA total of 132 cases were reported over 2017-2020. Estimated national incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 12-22) in 2017, 10 (95% CI: 6-14) in 2018, 15 (95% CI: 10-20) in 2019 and three (95% CI: 1-5) in 2020. The incidence rate was significantly lower in 2020 than in 2017-2019. Women were significantly more affected than men (83/132; 63% of women, p = 0.004); 66% (87/132) of cases were aged 15 years or over (median age: 31.5 years; range: 2 months-87 years). Among 37 vaccinated cases with data, 33 had received the recommended number of doses for their age.ConclusionsThese results concur with incidences reported in other European countries, and with studies showing that the incidences of several respiratory diseases decreased in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results also suggest a shift of morbidity towards older age groups, and a rapid waning of immunity after vaccination, justifying to continue this surveillance.

COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 352-361, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654550


BACKGROUND: The secondary attack rate (SAR) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was estimated, and the risk factors for infection among members of households with a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) index case were identified to inform preventive measures. METHODS: Between 3 August and 19 December 2020, a household transmission study was implemented based on a standardized World Health Organization protocol. Laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited through the federal COVID-19 database. Trained contact tracers interviewed index cases and household members to collect information on demographic, clinical and behavioural factors. Contacts were followed up for 28 days to identify secondary infections. SAR was estimated and odds ratios (OR) were calculated for risk factors for transmission. RESULTS: In total, 383 households and 793 contacts were included in this study. The overall SAR was 17% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14-21]. Contacts had higher risk for infection if the primary case had both cough and runny nose (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.60-11.63), if the contact was aged 18-49 years (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.83-11.93), if the contact kissed the primary case (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.19-8.43), or if the contact shared a meal with the primary case (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.17-8.27). CONCLUSIONS: These results add to the global literature by providing evidence from a middle-income setting. Standard preventive measures in households with positive cases remain critical to reduce transmission.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Prospective Studies
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496537


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of infants with possible and confirmed pertussis compared to healthy controls. METHODS: This prospective study included all infants <1 year with microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of pertussis attended at a University Hospital over a 12-month period. For each confirmed case, up to 2 consecutive patients within the same age range and meeting the clinical case definition of pertussis but testing PCR-negative were included as possible cases. A third group of asymptomatic infants (healthy controls) were also included. Nasopharyngeal microbiota was characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infection was tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Twelve confirmed cases, 21 possible cases and 9 healthy controls were included. Confirmed whooping cough was primarily driven by detection of Bordetella with no other major changes on nasopharyngeal microbiota. Possible cases had limited abundance or absence of Bordetella and a distinctive microbiota with lower bacterial richness and diversity and higher rates of viral co-infection than both confirmed cases and healthy controls. Bordetella reads determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were found in all 12 confirmed cases (100%), 3 out of the 21 possible cases (14.3%) but in any healthy control. CONCLUSION: This study supports the usefulness of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for improved sensitivity on pertussis diagnosis compared to real-time PCR and to understand other microbial changes occurring in the nasopharynx in children <1 year old with suspected whooping cough compared to healthy controls.

Microbiota , Whooping Cough/microbiology , Bordetella/genetics , Bordetella/isolation & purification , Bordetella/pathogenicity , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis