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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2825-2834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879357

ABSTRACT

Background: Comorbidities and advanced age increase the risk of severe outcomes of COVID-19. In order to shift the possible unfavorable treatment outcome in patients with chronic illnesses, information related to the prevalence of chronic illness and its effect on severity of COVID-19 infection has paramount importance. Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of comorbidities and associated severity among COVID-19 patients admitted to COVID-19 treatment center, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed among 422 COVID-19 patients admitted to COVID-19 treatment center, eastern Ethiopia from April 10, 2020, to August 10, 2021. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify comorbidities and other factors associated with severe clinical outcome, associations were presented with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all analyses statistical significance were declared at p-value <0.05. Results: More than half (52.4%) of the COVID-19 patients were presented with comorbid conditions. One third (34.6%) of the admitted COVID-19 patients were in severe clinical stages. Marital status (AOR=4.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 14.76), hypertension (AOR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.97), diabetes mellitus (AOR=3.31; 95%:1.84, 5.98), and cardiovascular diseases (AOR=4.22; 95% CI: 2.18, 8.15) were identified as factors associated with severe clinical stages. Conclusion: The comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, and marital status were identified as significant predictors of severe outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, identifying the people with chronic comorbidities as a risk group would help to anticipate and prevent the serious outcomes of COVID-19 infection.

2.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 14: 395-404, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865383

ABSTRACT

Background: Health-care workers (HCWs) are among the highest risk groups for COVID-19 infection. The vaccine is found to be vital for HCWs, their household contacts, and their patients to protect against COVID-19 infection and maintain the safety of health systems. The actual willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccination and associated factors remain uncertain among health-care workers in Ethiopia. Therefore, studying health-care workers' willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 vaccination helps to have an insight on valuation of the vaccine. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 403 randomly selected health-care workers working in health facilities in eastern Ethiopia from February 3 to March 20, 2021. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to test the associations between outcome and explanatory variables. A p-value of <0.05 with 95% confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance. Results: The magnitude of willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine was 42.8%. The median amounts of money respondents willing to pay was 400 ETB (US$ 10.04). Sex (male, AOR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.93), monthly income (>7000 ETB, AOR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.51), affordability (AOR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.35), fear of side effects (AOR = 3.75; 95% CI: 2.13, 6.60), support vaccinations (AOR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.65, 5.35), the likelihood of getting COVID-19 infection (AOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.52) were independent determinants of WTP for a COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: Health-care workers' willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccination was found to be low. Detailed health education and training about COVID-19 vaccines are required regarding their side effects, and efficacy to make an informed decision to enhance the willingness to pay for the vaccine. Moreover, the government should consider providing COVID vaccines free of charge for low-income groups and at an affordable price for those who could pay.

3.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121211070366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833173

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The hospital admissions load and how long each patient will stay in the hospital should be known to prevent the overwhelming of the health system during coronavirus disease 2019 era. Even though the length of hospital stay could vary due to different factors, the factors that affect the stay are not well characterized yet, particularly in the resource-limited settings. Knowing the time spent by the coronavirus disease 2019 patients in the hospital and its associated factors are important to prioritize mobilizing resources, such as beds, pharmacological and non-pharmacological supplies, and health personnel. Therefore, this study was intended to determine the median and identify factors associated with the length of hospital stay among coronavirus disease 2019 cases. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was implemented on 394 randomly selected hospitalized patients. Epidata Version 3.1 software was used for data entry, and further analysis was done using Stata version 14.2 software. Frequencies, median with interquartile range, and chi-square test were performed. A logistic regression model was used to identify the association between outcome and explanatory variables. The statistical significance was declared at p-value of less than 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The analysis was done for a total of 394 cases admitted for coronavirus disease 2019. The median age of the study participants was 40 years with interquartile range of 28-60 years. The median length of hospital stay was 12 days with the interquartile range of 8-17 days. The patients presented with shortness of breathing (AOR = 2.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.33-5.66), incident organ failure (AOR = 3.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-11.58), increased leukocyte count (AOR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.99), and blood urea nitrogen (AOR = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99) had a significant association with prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the proportion of patients stayed above the median hospital stay of the total patients was 185 (46.9%) with the median length of 12 (interquartile range = 8-17) days. Patients presented with difficulty of breathing, had incident organ failure, had decreased leukocyte, and blood urea nitrogen level should be estimated to stay longer in the hospital. Hence, patients with prolonged hospital length of stay associating factors should be expected to consume more pharmacological and non-pharmacological resources during hospital care receiving.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 412, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Organ failure is incapability of at least one of the body organs to carry out a normal body functions. Identifying the predictors of the organ failure is crucial for improving COVID-19 patients' survival. However, the evidence related to this information is not well-established in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of organ failure among adult patients admitted to Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital (HFSUH) COVID-19 treatment center from 1st May 2020 to 20th August 2021, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study design was implemented. Descriptive measures such as mean with standard deviation (SD), median with interquartile range (IQR), percentages, and frequencies were computed. The binary logistic regression was used to identify the association between outcome variables (organ functional status) and independent variables with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at a 95% confidence interval. A significance level was declared at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of study participants was 47.69 years with the standard deviation (SD) of ± 17.03. The study participants were followed for the median time of 8 days with IQR of 4, 14. The incidence of organ failure was 11.9 per 1000 person-day contribution (95% CI: 9.5, 14.9). Predictors such as age above 60 years (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.44, 4.53), smoking history (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.15), cardiovascular disease (AOR = 5.00, 95% CI: (1.83, 11.72), and critical clinical stages of COVID-19 (AOR = 5.42, 95%: 1.47, 14. 84) were significantly associated with organ failure among COVID-19 hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of organ failure was 11.9 per 1000 person-day contribution. Age, smoking, comorbidity, and clinical stages were significantly associated with organ failure among COVID-19 hospitalized cases. Therefore, clinicians should stringently follow the patients experiencing modifiable predictors of organ failure, especially patients with comorbidities and severe clinical stages. Moreover, the prevention programs that target elders and smokers should be strengthening to save this segment of populations before suffering from organ failure following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5363-5373, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The very unprecedented virus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued causing catastrophes in economy and loss of human lives. Despite countries' urgent and resilient public health actions against the COVID-19 pandemic, the disease is causing a large number of deaths. However, predictors of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the predictors of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients at a tertiary care hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective cohort design study was implemented among hospitalized COVID-19 patients at a tertiary care hospital in Harar, Ethiopia from March 20 to August 20, 2021. Data of 531 admitted patients were entered using Epi-data 3.1 and exported to STATA 14.2 for analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of outcome variables with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Of the total 531 study participants, 101 deaths occurred. The mortality rate was 16.2 per 1000 person-days of observation with median survival time of 44 days with IQR [28, 74]. Smoking history [AOR=2.55, 95% CI (1.15, 5.65)], alcohol history [AOR=2.3, 95% CI (1.06, 4.97)], comorbidities [AOR=2.95, 95% CI (1.26, 6.91)], and increasing oxygen saturation [AOR=0.92, 95% CI (0.89, 0.95)], and lymphocyte count [AOR=0.90, 95% CI (0.88, 0.97)] were independent significant predictors of death from Covid-19. CONCLUSION: The incidence of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was found to be high. Devising individual, tailored management for patients with "risk" behaviors, comorbid conditions, and poor prognostic markers such as lymphopenia and low oxygen saturation, may reduce the incidence of death among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment and depersonalization experienced by a health professional and it is more common in nurses due to high workload and job stress that is mostly caused by working proximity to patients and taking care of them. Burnout compromises the provision of quality health care. Despite this, there is no information in Ethiopia on burnout among nurses in study area. OBJECTIVES: To determine the magnitude of burnout and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Harari regional state and Dire Dawa administration, eastern Ethiopia, February 1-29, 2020. METHODS: Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed from February 1-29 among 412 randomly selected nurses who have been working in hospitals for the last 6 months. Simple random sampling method was employed and data was collected by self-administered, standardized, reliable and valid, questionnaire (Maslachs Burnout Inventory- Human Services Survey). Data was entered into EpiData Version 3.1 and exported to statistical package for social science version 20 for analysis. All covariate with P-value less than 0.25 in bivariable analysis were candidate for multivariable analysis. Level of statistical significance was declared at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 412 nurses taking part in this study, 183(44.4%) of nurses with 95% CI, had experienced burnout. Married marital status [AOR:2.3,95%CI:(1.2-4.3)], poor current health status [AOR:4.8, 95% CI:(1.1-21.4)] and fair current health status [AOR:12, 95% CI:(4.5-32)], working greater than eight hour per-day[AOR:0.52, 95%CI:(0.29-0.92)], intention to leave a job [AOR:0.48,95%CI:(0.2-0.88), being working in emergency room [AOR:0.3,95%CI:(0.1-0.98)] and using a different medication related to work related health problems were factors associated with nurses' burnout. CONCLUSION: The nurses' burnout in this study is high and it is attributed by marriage, perceiving health status as poor and fair, whereas, having the intention to leave job, being working in emergency room and using a medication in relation to work related health problems reduced risk of developing burnout. So, the concerned bodies should provide trainings which focus on stress copying mechanisms and assertiveness program.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , Hospitals, Public , Nurses/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Nurses/organization & administration , Occupational Stress/psychology , Young Adult
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