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3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4383, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317806

ABSTRACT

In February and March 2020, two mass swab testing campaigns were conducted in Vo', Italy. In May 2020, we tested 86% of the Vo' population with three immuno-assays detecting antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid antigens, a neutralisation assay and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Subjects testing positive to PCR in February/March or a serological assay in May were tested again in November. Here we report on the results of the analysis of the May and November surveys. We estimate a seroprevalence of 3.5% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 2.8-4.3%) in May. In November, 98.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 93.7-100.0%) of sera which tested positive in May still reacted against at least one antigen; 18.6% (95% CI: 11.0-28.5%) showed an increase of antibody or neutralisation reactivity from May. Analysis of the serostatus of the members of 1,118 households indicates a 26.0% (95% CrI: 17.2-36.9%) Susceptible-Infectious Transmission Probability. Contact tracing had limited impact on epidemic suppression.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nucleocapsid , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Dis Esophagus ; 34(6)2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947651

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has significantly burdened healthcare systems worldwide, leading to reorganization of healthcare services and reallocation of resources. The Italian Society for Study of Esophageal Diseases (SISME) conducted a national survey to evaluate changes in esophageal cancer management in a region severely struck by COVID-19 pandemic. A web-based questionnaire (26 items) was sent to 12 SISME units. Short-term outcomes of esophageal resections performed during the lockdown were compared with those achieved in the same period of 2019. Six (50%) centers had significant restrictions in their activity. However, overall number of resections did not decrease compared to 2019, while a higher rate of open esophageal resections was observed (40 vs. 21.7%; P = 0.034). Surgery was delayed in 24 (36.9%) patients in 6 (50%) centers, mostly due to shortage of anesthesiologists, and occupation of intensive care unit beds from intubated COVID-19 patients. Indications for neoadjuvant chemo (radio) therapy were extended in 14% of patients. Separate COVID-19 hospital pathways were active in 11 (91.7%) units. COVID-19 screening protocols included nasopharyngeal swab in 91.7%, chest computed tomography scan in 8.3% and selective use of lung ultrasound in 75% of units. Postoperative interstitial pneumonia occurred in 1 (1.5%) patient. Recovery from COVID-19 pandemic was characterized by screening of patients in all units, and follow-up outpatient visits in only 33% of units. This survey shows that clinical strategies differed considerably among the 12 SISME centers. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to support the surgical esophageal community and to standardize clinical practice in case of further pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pandemics , Surgeons/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 309-317, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the successful emergency plan implemented by Padova University Hospital (AOUP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The emergency plan included early implementation of procedures aimed at meeting the increasing demand for testing and care while ensuring safe and timely care of all patients and guaranteeing the safety of healthcare workers. RESULTS: From 21 February to 1 May 2020, there were 3,862 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Province of Padua. A total of 485 patients were hospitalized in AOUP, of which 91 were admitted to the ICU; 12 .6% of admitted patients died. The average bed occupancy rate in the ICU was 61.1% (IQR 43.6%:77.4%). Inpatient surgery and inpatient admissions were kept for 76% and 74%, respectively, compared to March 2019. A total of 123,077 swabs were performed, 19.3% of which (23,725 swabs) to screen AOUP workers. The screening of all staff showed that 137 of 7,649 (1.8%) hospital workers were positive. No healthcare worker died. DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emergencies , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Nature ; 584(7821): 425-429, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628367

ABSTRACT

On 21 February 2020, a resident of the municipality of Vo', a small town near Padua (Italy), died of pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection1. This was the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related death detected in Italy since the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, Hubei province2. In response, the regional authorities imposed the lockdown of the whole municipality for 14 days3. Here we collected information on the demography, clinical presentation, hospitalization, contact network and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasopharyngeal swabs for 85.9% and 71.5% of the population of Vo' at two consecutive time points. From the first survey, which was conducted around the time the town lockdown started, we found a prevalence of infection of 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-3.3%). From the second survey, which was conducted at the end of the lockdown, we found a prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.8%). Notably, 42.5% (95% CI: 31.5-54.6%) of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections detected across the two surveys were asymptomatic (that is, did not have symptoms at the time of swab testing and did not develop symptoms afterwards). The mean serial interval was 7.2 days (95% CI: 5.9-9.6). We found no statistically significant difference in the viral load of symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections (P = 0.62 and 0.74 for E and RdRp genes, respectively, exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). This study sheds light on the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, their infectivity (as measured by the viral load) and provides insights into its transmission dynamics and the efficacy of the implemented control measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Load , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
8.
Int J Surg ; 79: 180-188, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-397689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical departments were forced to re-schedule their activity giving priority to urgent procedures and non-deferrable oncological cases. There is a lack of evidence-based literature providing clinical and organizational guidelines for the management of a general surgery department. Aim of our study was to review the available recommendations published by general Surgery Societies and Health Institutions and evaluate the underlying Literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the English Literature was conducted according to the AMSTAR and to the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: After eligibility assessment, a total of 22 papers and statements were analyzed. Surgical societies have established criteria for triage and prioritization in order to identify procedures that can be postponed after the pandemic and those that should not. Prioritization among oncologic cases represents a difficult task: clinicians have to balance a possible delay in cancer diagnosis or treatment against the risk for a potential COVID-19 exposure. There is broad agreement among guidelines that indication to proceed with surgery should be discussed in virtual Tumor Boards taking into consideration alternative therapeutic approaches. Several guidelines deal with the role of laparoscopic surgery during the pandemic: a tailored approach is currently suggested, with a case-by-case evaluation provided that appropriate personal protective equipment is available in order to minimize the potential risk of transmission. Finally, there is a considerable agreement in the published Literature concerning the management of the personnel during the peri- and intraoperative phase and on the technical advices regarding the induction, operative and recover maneuvers in COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 pandemic, it is of paramount importance to face the emergency in the most effective and efficient manner, retrieving resources from non-essential settings and, at the same time, providing care to high priority non-COVID-19 related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surgery Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Triage
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