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1.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):447, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928081

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but catastrophic syndrome characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis, with thrombocytopenia and antibodies against platelet factor-4 (PF4)/polyanion, typically 5-30 days from the first dose of a DNA viral vector vaccine. Very rarely, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can be the result of VITT. The aim of this study was to define the clinical and radiological characteristics, outcome and therapeutic options of VITT patients with AIS. Methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature till October 27, 2021 using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases in order to collect all the published articles related to the development of AIS after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Results: We identified 16 patients from case reports or case series published in peer-reviewed journals affected by AIS and confirmed VITT. All patients had received the first dose of ChAdOx1 ncov19 vaccine within 10 days (median). 81% (n=13/16) of the patients had occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or its branches, 43.7% (n=7/16) also had thrombotic occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery. 45.4% (n=5/16) of the patients with proximal MCA occlusion developed a malignant MCA infarct. Only one patient received intravenous thrombolysis, while three patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Conclusions: The management of AIS due to large vessel occlusion in VITT is challenging. Based on the available literature, we propose a therapeutic protocol for acute stroke patients presenting to the Emergency Department within the time window for reperfusion strategies.

2.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333523

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Case series without control groups suggest that Covid-19 may cause ischemic stroke, but whether Covid-19 is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with Covid-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously linked to stroke. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic hospitals in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: We included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 from March 4, 2020 through May 2, 2020. Our comparison cohort included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with influenza A or B from January 1, 2016 through May 31, 2018 (calendar years spanning moderate and severe influenza seasons). Exposures: Covid-19 infection confirmed by evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the nasopharynx by polymerase chain reaction, and laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B. Main Outcomes and Measures: A panel of neurologists adjudicated the primary outcome of acute ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics, etiological mechanisms, and outcomes. We used logistic regression to compare the proportion of Covid-19 patients with ischemic stroke versus the proportion among patients with influenza. RESULTS: Among 2,132 patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19, 31 patients (1.5%;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-2.1%) had an acute ischemic stroke. The median age of patients with stroke was 69 years (interquartile range, 66-78) and 58% were men. Stroke was the reason for hospital presentation in 8 (26%) cases. For our comparison cohort, we identified 1,516 patients with influenza, of whom 0.2% (95% CI, 0.0-0.6%) had an acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, the likelihood of stroke was significantly higher with Covid-19 than with influenza infection (odds ratio, 7.5;95% CI, 2.3-24.9). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Approximately 1.5% of patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 experienced ischemic stroke, a rate 7.5-fold higher than in patients with influenza. Future studies should investigate the thrombotic mechanisms in Covid-19 in order to determine optimal strategies to prevent disabling complications like ischemic stroke.

3.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1723997

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of stroke and worse stroke outcomes. A clinical score that can identify high-risk patients could enable closer monitoring and targeted preventative strategies. Methods: We used data from the AHA's COVID-19 CVD Registry to create a clinical score to predict the risk of stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We included patients aged >18 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 122 centers from March 2020-March 2021. To build our score, we used demographics, preexisting comorbidities, home medications, and vital sign and lab values at admission. The outcome was a cerebrovascular event, defined as any ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, TIA, or cerebral vein thrombosis. We used two separate analytical approaches to build the score. First, we used Cox regression with cross validation techniques to identify factors associated with the outcome in both univariable (p<0.10) and multivariable analyses (p<0.05), then assigned points for each variable based on corresponding coefficients. Second, we used regularized Cox regression, XGBoost, and Random Forest machine learning techniques to create an estimator using all available covariates. We used Harrel's C-statistic to measure discriminatory performance. Results: Among 21,420 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (mean age 61 years, 54% men), 312 (1.5%) had a cerebrovascular event. Using traditional Cox regression, we created and internally validated a risk stratification score (CANDLE) (Fig) with a C-statistic of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.60-0.72). The machine learning estimator had similar discriminatory performance, with a C-statistic of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65-0.72). For ischemic stroke or TIA, CANDLE's C-statistic was 0.67 (95% 0.59-0.76). Conclusion: We developed an easy-to-use clinical score, with similar performance to a machine learning estimator, to help stratify stroke risk among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(11): 2001-2008, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A large spectrum of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Our aim was to investigate the yield of neuroimaging in patients with COVID-19 undergoing CT or MR imaging of the brain and to describe associated imaging findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 2054 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 presenting to 2 hospitals in New York City between March 4 and May 9, 2020, of whom 278 (14%) underwent either CT or MR imaging of the brain. All images initially received a formal interpretation from a neuroradiologist within the institution and were subsequently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists in consensus, with disputes resolved by a third neuroradiologist. RESULTS: The median age of these patients was 64 years (interquartile range, 50-75 years), and 43% were women. Among imaged patients, 58 (21%) demonstrated acute or subacute neuroimaging findings, the most common including cerebral infarctions (11%), parenchymal hematomas (3.6%), and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (1.1%). Among the 51 patients with MR imaging examinations, 26 (51%) demonstrated acute or subacute findings; notable findings included 6 cases of cranial nerve abnormalities (including 4 patients with olfactory bulb abnormalities) and 3 patients with a microhemorrhage pattern compatible with critical illness-associated microbleeds. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms the wide range of neurologic imaging findings in patients with COVID-19 and suggests the need for further studies to optimize management for these patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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