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1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(7): 439-446, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors have been identified to predict worse outcomes in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Machine learning algorithms represent a novel approach to identifying a prediction model with a good discriminatory capacity to be easily used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to obtain a risk score for in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) based on a limited number of features collected at hospital admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied an Italian cohort of consecutive adult Caucasian patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 13 cardiology units during Spring 2020. The Lasso procedure was used to select the most relevant covariates. The dataset was randomly divided into a training set containing 80% of the data, used for estimating the model, and a test set with the remaining 20%. A Random Forest modeled in-hospital mortality with the selected set of covariates: its accuracy was measured by means of the ROC curve, obtaining AUC, sensitivity, specificity and related 95% confidence interval (CI). This model was then compared with the one obtained by the Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) and with logistic regression. Finally, to understand if each model has the same performance in the training and test set, the two AUCs were compared using the DeLong's test. Among 701 patients enrolled (mean age 67.2 ±â€Š13.2 years, 69.5% male individuals), 165 (23.5%) died during a median hospitalization of 15 (IQR, 9-24) days. Variables selected by the Lasso procedure were: age, oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine clearance and elevated troponin. Compared with those who survived, deceased patients were older, had a lower blood oxygenation, lower creatinine clearance levels and higher prevalence of elevated troponin (all P < 0.001). The best performance out of the samples was provided by Random Forest with an AUC of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.68-0.88) and a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.58-1.00). Moreover, Random Forest was the unique model that provided similar performance in sample and out of sample (DeLong test P = 0.78). CONCLUSION: In a large COVID-19 population, we showed that a customizable machine learning-based score derived from clinical variables is feasible and effective for the prediction of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Creatinine , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
2.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(9): 1085-1091, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly influenced cardiological clinical and basic research in the past two years. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on myocardial involvement in COVID-19, providing an overview on the incidence, the pathogenetic mechanisms, and the clinical implications of cardiac injury in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The possibility of heart involvement in patients with COVID-19 has received great attention since the beginning of the pandemic. After more than two years, several steps have been taken in understanding the mechanisms and the incidence of cardiac injury during COVID-19 infection. Similarly, studies globally have clarified the implications of co-existing heart disease and COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 infection may be complicated by myocardial injury. To date, a direct damage from the virus has not been demonstrated. The presence of myocardial injury should be systematically assessed for a prognostication purpose and for possible therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Heart , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(6): 408-413, 2022 Jun.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892438

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-associated myocarditis and pericarditis usually develop within 14 days of COVID-19 vaccination, are exceptionally rare, manifest with mild clinical pictures and are commonly characterized by a favorable evolution. Young men inoculated with two doses of an mRNA vaccine are the subgroup at higher risk. Recent epidemiological studies evaluated the incidence and risk of vaccine-associated myocarditis and pericarditis among men and women, in different ranges of age and specific types of vaccines. Long-term population analyses demonstrated that the cardiovascular risk conferred by COVID-19 extends beyond the acute phase, representing the rationale for implementing prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2 infection, monitoring specific populations at higher risk and pursuing the completion of the vaccination campaign. This document provides an update on the most recent scientific evidence and critical interpretation of available data in constant evolution towards personalized strategies of immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Expert Testimony , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(4): 254-263, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742158

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The role of sex compared to comorbidities and other prognostic variables in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unclear. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study on patients with COVID-19 infection, referred to 13 cardiology units. The primary objective was to assess the difference in risk of death between the sexes. The secondary objective was to explore sex-based heterogeneity in the association between demographic, clinical and laboratory variables, and patients' risk of death. RESULTS: Seven hundred and one patients were included: 214 (30.5%) women and 487 (69.5%) men. During a median follow-up of 15 days, deaths occurred in 39 (18.2%) women and 126 (25.9%) men. In a multivariable Cox regression model, men had a nonsignificantly higher risk of death vs. women (P = 0.07).The risk of death was more than double in men with a low lymphocytes count as compared with men with a high lymphocytes count [overall survival hazard ratio (OS-HR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.81]. In contrast, lymphocytes count was not related to death in women (P = 0.03).Platelets count was associated with better outcome in men (OS-HR for increase of 50 × 103 units: 0.88 95% CI 0.78-1.00) but not in women. The strength of association between higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio and lower risk of death was larger in women (OS-HR for increase of 50 mmHg/%: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89) vs. men (OS-HR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98; P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients' sex is a relevant variable that should be taken into account when evaluating risk of death from COVID-19. There is a sex-based heterogeneity in the association between baseline variables and patients' risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715102

ABSTRACT

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. It derives from the extract of white willow bark, whose therapeutic potential was known in Egypt since 1534 BC. ASA's pharmacological effects are historically considered secondary to its anti-inflammatory, platelet-inhibiting properties; however, human studies demonstrating a pro-inflammatory effect of ASA exist. It is likely that we are aware of only part of ASA's mechanisms of action; moreover, the clinical effect is largely dependent on dosages. During the past few decades, evidence of the anti-infective properties of ASA has emerged. We performed a review of such research in order to provide a comprehensive overview of ASA and viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, as well as ASA's antibiofilm properties.

6.
Am J Cardiol ; 167: 125-132, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633476

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the combined prognostic role of natriuretic peptide (NP) and troponin in patients with COVID-19 are lacking. The aim of the study is to evaluate the combined prognostic value of NPs and troponin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. From March 1, 2020 to April 9, 2020, consecutive patients with COVID-19 and available data on cardiac biomarkers at admission were recruited. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Troponin levels were defined as elevated when greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. NPs were considered elevated if above the limit for ruling in acute heart failure (HF). A total of 341 patients were included in this study, mean age 68 ± 13 years, 72% were men. During a median follow-up period of 14 days, 81 patients (24%) died. In the Cox regression analysis, patients with elevated both NPs and troponin levels had higher risk of death compared with those with normal levels of both (hazard ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 6.64; p = 0.009), and this remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, oxygen saturation, HF history, and chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, NPs provided risk stratification also in patients with normal troponin values (hazard ratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 6.72; p = 0.016 with high NPs levels). These data show the combined prognostic role of troponin and NPs in COVID-19 patients. NPs value may be helpful in identifying patients with a worse prognosis among those with normal troponin values. Further, NPs' cut-point used for diagnosis of acute HF has a predictive role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hospital Mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/blood , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(11): 894-899, 2021 Nov.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496712

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Great efforts have been made worldwide to promptly develop effective vaccines and reduce morbidity and mortality rates from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Available vaccines have proven highly effective at preventing symptomatic disease in clinical trials and real-world reports and are playing an essential role in flattening the epidemiology curve and, mostly, in reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations. Some concerns have been raised after very rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as potentially associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations, namely the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) and the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273). Therefore, the aim of this document is to explore the possible link between COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and the development of myocarditis and/or pericarditis by performing a critical analysis of available data and to provide indications for specific subgroups of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Expert Testimony , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 270-273, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid therapy has emerged as an effective therapeutic option in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to focus on the impact of relevant clinical and laboratory factors on the protective effect of glucocorticoids on mortality. METHODS: A sub-analysis was performed of the multicenter Cardio-COVID-Italy registry, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 13 Italian cardiology units between 01 March 2020 and 09 April 2020. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 706 COVID-19 patients were included (349 treated with glucocorticoids, 357 not treated with glucocorticoids). After adjustment for relevant covariates, use of glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.26-0.72; p = 0.001). A significant interaction was observed between the protective effect of glucocorticoids on mortality and PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (p = 0.042), oxygen saturation on admission (p = 0.017), and peak CRP (0.023). Such protective effects of glucocorticoids were mainly observed in patients with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio (<300), lower oxygen saturation (<90%), and higher CRP (>100 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The protective effects of glucocorticoids on mortality in COVID-19 were more evident among patients with worse respiratory parameters and higher systemic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(8): 2081-2094, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To rapidly exclude severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection using artificial intelligence applied to the electrocardiogram (ECG). METHODS: A global, volunteer consortium from 4 continents identified patients with ECGs obtained around the time of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and age- and sex-matched controls from the same sites. Clinical characteristics, polymerase chain reaction results, and raw electrocardiographic data were collected. A convolutional neural network was trained using 26,153 ECGs (33.2% COVID positive), validated with 3826 ECGs (33.3% positive), and tested on 7870 ECGs not included in other sets (32.7% positive). Performance under different prevalence values was tested by adding control ECGs from a single high-volume site. RESULTS: The area under the curve for detection of acute COVID-19 infection in the test group was 0.767 (95% CI, 0.756 to 0.778; sensitivity, 98%; specificity, 10%; positive predictive value, 37%; negative predictive value, 91%). To more accurately reflect a real-world population, 50,905 normal controls were added to adjust the COVID prevalence to approximately 5% (2657/58,555), resulting in an area under the curve of 0.780 (95% CI, 0.771 to 0.790) with a specificity of 12.1% and a negative predictive value of 99.2%. CONCLUSION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in electrocardiographic changes that permit the artificial intelligence-enhanced ECG to be used as a rapid screening test with a high negative predictive value (99.2%). This may permit the development of electrocardiography-based tools to rapidly screen individuals for pandemic control.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Europace ; 23(10): 1603-1611, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322629

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the clinical relevance of a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 696 consecutive patients (mean age 67.4 ± 13.2 years, 69.7% males) admitted for COVID-19 in 13 Italian cardiology centres between 1 March and 9 April 2020. One hundred and six patients (15%) had a history of AF and the median hospitalization length was 14 days (interquartile range 9-24). Patients with a history of AF were older and with a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to patients without AF, they showed a higher rate of in-hospital death (38.7% vs. 20.8%; P < 0.001). History of AF was associated with an increased risk of death after adjustment for clinical confounders related to COVID-19 severity and cardiovascular comorbidities, including history of heart failure (HF) and increased plasma troponin [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.84; P = 0.029]. Patients with a history of AF also had more in-hospital clinical events including new-onset AF (36.8% vs. 7.9%; P < 0.001), acute HF (25.3% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.001), and multiorgan failure (13.9% vs. 5.8%; P = 0.010). The association between AF and worse outcome was not modified by previous or concomitant use of anticoagulants or steroid therapy (P for interaction >0.05 for both) and was not related to stroke or bleeding events. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a history of AF contributes to worse clinical course with a higher mortality and in-hospital events including new-onset AF, acute HF, and multiorgan failure. The mortality risk remains significant after adjustment for variables associated with COVID-19 severity and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(11): 1822-1831, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing evidence about myocardial injury in hospitalized COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the mechanism behind this injury is only poorly understood and little is known about its association with SARS-CoV-2-mediated myocarditis. Furthermore, definite evidence of the presence and role of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiomyocytes in the clinical scenario is still lacking. METHODS: We histologically characterized myocardial tissue of 40 patients deceased with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the pandemic. Clinical data were also recorded and analyzed. In case of findings supportive of myocardial inflammation, histological analysis was complemented by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens and in situ RNA hybridization for the detection of viral genomes. RESULTS: Both chronic and acute myocardial damage was invariably present, correlating with the age and comorbidities of our population. Myocarditis of overt entity was found in one case (2.5%). SARS-CoV-2 genome was not found in the cardiomyocytes of the patient with myocarditis, while it was focally and negligibly present in cardiomyocytes of patients with known viral persistence in the lungs and no signs of myocardial inflammation. The presence of myocardial injury was not associated with myocardial inflammatory infiltrates. CONCLUSIONS: In this autopsy cohort of COVID-19 patients, myocarditis is rarely found and not associated with SARS-CoV-2 presence in cardiomyocytes. Chronic and acute forms of myocardial damage are constantly found and correlate with the severity of COVID-19 disease and pre-existing comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3504-3511, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300393

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Myocardial injury (MI) in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is quite prevalent at admission and affects prognosis. Little is known about troponin trajectories and their prognostic role. We aimed to describe the early in-hospital evolution of MI and its prognostic impact. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an analysis from an Italian multicentre study enrolling COVID-19 patients, hospitalized from 1 March to 9 April 2020. MI was defined as increased troponin level. The first troponin was tested within 24 h from admission, the second one between 24 and 48 h. Elevated troponin was defined as values above the 99th percentile of normal values. Patients were divided in four groups: normal, normal then elevated, elevated then normal, and elevated. The outcome was in-hospital death. The study population included 197 patients; 41% had normal troponin at both evaluations, 44% had elevated troponin at both assessments, 8% had normal then elevated troponin, and 7% had elevated then normal troponin. During hospitalization, 49 (25%) patients died. Patients with incident MI, with persistent MI, and with MI only at admission had a higher risk of death compared with those with normal troponin at both evaluations (P < 0.001). At multivariable analysis, patients with normal troponin at admission and MI injury on Day 2 had the highest mortality risk (hazard ratio 3.78, 95% confidence interval 1.10-13.09, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted for COVID-19, re-test MI on Day 2 provides a prognostic value. A non-negligible proportion of patients with incident MI on Day 2 is identified at high risk of death only by the second measurement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Troponin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Prognosis
16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2238-2247, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919856

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the prognostic value of a history of heart failure (HF) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 692 consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 in 13 Italian cardiology centres between 1 March and 9 April 2020. Mean age was 67.4 ± 13.2 years, 69.5% of patients were males, 90 (13.0%) had a history of HF, median hospitalization length was 14 days (interquartile range 9-24). In-hospital death occurred in 37 of 90 patients (41.1%) with HF history vs. 126 of those with no HF history (20.9%). The increased risk of death associated with HF history remained significant after adjustment for clinical variables related to COVID-19 and HF severity, including comorbidities, oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count and plasma troponin [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death: 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.02; P = 0.006 at multivariable Cox regression model including 404 patients]. Patients with a history of HF also had more in-hospital complications including acute HF (33.3% vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001), acute renal failure (28.1% vs. 12.9%, P < 0.001), multiorgan failure (15.9% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.004) and sepsis (18.4% vs. 8.9%, P = 0.006). Other independent predictors of outcome were age, sex, oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2 /FiO2 ). In-hospital treatment with corticosteroids and heparin had beneficial effects (adjusted HR for death: 0.46; 95% CI 0.29-0.74; P = 0.001; n = 404 for corticosteroids, and adjusted HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.67; P < 0.001; n = 364 for heparin). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a history of HF have an extremely poor outcome with higher mortality and in-hospital complications. HF history is an independent predictor of increased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Sepsis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Partial Pressure , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1020-1028, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) critically ill patients, but the evidence from more heterogeneous cohorts is limited. METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to 13 Cardiology Units in Italy, from March 1st to April 9th, 2020, and followed until in-hospital death, discharge, or April 23rd, 2020. The association of baseline variables with computed tomography-confirmed PE was investigated by Cox hazards regression analysis. The relationship between D-dimer levels and PE incidence was evaluated using restricted cubic splines models. RESULTS: The study included 689 patients (67.3 ± 13.2 year-old, 69.4% males), of whom 43.6% were non-invasively ventilated and 15.8% invasively. 52 (7.5%) had PE over 15 (9-24) days of follow-up. Compared with those without PE, these subjects had younger age, higher BMI, less often heart failure and chronic kidney disease, more severe cardio-pulmonary involvement, and higher admission D-dimer [4344 (1099-15,118) vs. 818.5 (417-1460) ng/mL, p < 0.001]. They also received more frequently darunavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab and ventilation support. Furthermore, they faced more bleeding episodes requiring transfusion (15.6% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) and non-significantly higher in-hospital mortality (34.6% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.06). In multivariate regression, only D-dimer was associated with PE (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; p = 0.01). The relation between D-dimer concentrations and PE incidence was linear, without inflection point. Only two subjects had a baseline D-dimer < 500 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: PE occurs in a sizable proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The implications of bleeding events and the role of D-dimer in this population need to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1274-1280, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740765

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, has been associated with mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the initial data were reported from single-center or 2-center studies in Chinese populations. Compared with these patients, European and US patients are older, with more comorbidities and higher mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, in a large population of White Italian patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 13 Italian cardiology units from March 1 to April 9, 2020. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Elevated troponin levels were defined as values greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical characteristics and outcomes stratified as elevated or normal cardiac troponin levels at admission, defined as troponin T or troponin I at a level greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. RESULTS: A total of 614 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study (mean age [SD], 67 [13] years; 70.8% male), of whom 148 patients (24.1%) died during the hospitalization. Elevated troponin levels were found in 278 patients (45.3%). These patients were older (mean [SD] age, 64.0 [13.6] years vs 71.3 [12.0] years; P < .001) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (168 patients [50.5%] vs 182 patients [65.9%]; P < .001), heart failure (24 [7.2%]; 63 [22.8%]; P < .001), coronary artery disease (50 [15.0%] vs 87 [31.5%]; P < .001), and atrial fibrillation (33 [9.9%] vs 67 [24.3%]; P < .001). Elevated troponin levels were associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (37% vs 13%; HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.59]; P = .01 via multivariable Cox regression analysis), and this was independent from concomitant cardiac disease. Elevated troponin levels were also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital complications: heart failure (44 patients [19.2%] vs 7 patients [2.9%]; P < .001), sepsis (31 [11.7%] vs 21 [6.4%]; P = .03), acute kidney failure (41 [20.8%] vs 13 [6.2%]; P < .001), multiorgan failure (21 [10.9%] vs 6 [2.9%]; P = .003), pulmonary embolism (27 [9.9%] vs 17 [5.2%]; P = .04), delirium (13 [6.8%] vs 3 [1.5%]; P = .02), and major bleeding (16 [7.0%] vs 4 [1.6%]; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this multicenter, cross-sectional study of Italian patients with COVID-19, elevated troponin was an independent variable associated with in-hospital mortality and a greater risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular complications during a hospitalization for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood
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