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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102386, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human monkeypox (MPX) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the MPX virus a double-stranded DNA virus which belongs to the Poxviridae family genus Orthopoxvirus. It is endemic in the rural rainforests of Central and Western Africa where it is responsible of human sporadic cases and outbreaks since 1970. Outside Africa MPXV caused an outbreak in 2003 in the United States linked to importation of infected rodents from Ghana and a few travel-related cases in the USA, United Kingdom, Israel and Singapore. Actually, a worldwide outbreak with more than 1200 confirmed cases mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men is ongoing. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an Italian man living in Portugal that was diagnosed with MPX at our clinic in Milan, Italy. Monkeypox virus infection was confirmed by a specific homemade Real-Time PCR. Samples obtained from different sites (pharynx, skin lesions, anal ulcer, seminal fluid) turned all positive with different viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Our report illustrates the challenge of a disease that seems to present in a different way from classic description with possible human-to-human transmission through sexual contact.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4747-4754, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655943

ABSTRACT

In Italy, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign prioritized healthcare workers (HCWs) to receive two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, irrespective of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this real-life study, we compared the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine in HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 407 HCWs enrolled, 334 (82.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-naive and 73 (17.9%) SARS-CoV-2-experienced. Post-vaccine humoral response was detectable in more than 98% of HCWs. Overall, the median level of anti-S IgG in SARS-COV-2-experienced HCWs was twice as high as those of SARS-CoV-2-naive subjects (24641.0 AU/mL [IQR: 15273.0->40000.0] versus 13053.8 [IQR: 7303.3-20105.8]; p < .001), irrespective of the time elapsed from SARS-CoV-2 previous infection. In a subgroup of SARS-CoV-2-naive and -experienced subjects who received only one dose of the vaccine, the latter showed 32 times higher levels of anti-S IgG compared to the former. Although no serious adverse events have been reported, mild to moderate side effects occurred more frequently after the first dose in the SARS-CoV-2-experienced than in naive subjects (67% versus 42%, respectively; p < .001). Notably, post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG levels ≥20,000 AU/mL were independently associated with the risk of fever ≥38°C (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.122, 95% CI 2.368-11.080, p < .0001).Our study showed high responsiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine and a relationship between levels of antibody response and reactogenicity. It suggests that a single dose of mRNA vaccine might evoke effective protection in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19373, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442809

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 primarily affecting the respiratory system which can damage vessels walls virtually in any body district. Changes affecting retinal vessels are a good marker for systemic vascular alterations. This study investigated retinal vessels during the acute phase of COVID-19 and after patients recovery. Fifty-nine eyes from 32 COVID-19 patients and 80 eyes from 53 unexposed subjects were included. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were assessed through semi-automatic analysis on fundus color photos at baseline and 6 months later in patients and subjects unexposed to the virus. At baseline MAD and MVD were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (p < 0.0001). Both MAD and MVD significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients at follow-up (from 97.5 ± 10.9 to 92.2 ± 11.4 µm, p < 0.0001 and from 133.1 ± 19.3 to 124.6 ± 16.1 µm, p < 0.0001, respectively). Despite this reduction vessels diameter remained significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects. Transient retinal vessels dilation could serve a biomarker for systemic inflammation while long-lasting alterations seen in severe COVID-19 likely reflect irreversible structural damage to the vessels walls and should be further investigated for their possible effects on tissues perfusion and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retina/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Emerg Nurse ; 30(1): 25-31, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in severe pneumonia, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, which are treated using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients must be evaluated quickly to commence early CPAP if required. AIM: To identify patients with COVID-19 in the emergency department (ED) who require early CPAP, using vital signs measurements during triage. METHOD: This was a retrospective, observational, single-centre cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ED of a university hospital in Lombardy, Italy, between 21 February 2020 and 30 April 2020. These patients were divided into two groups: those who required CPAP and those did not require CPAP. Recordings of their vital signs were retrieved from triage medical records. The vital signs values recorded in the two groups on their arrival at the ED were compared. RESULTS: Of 601 patients, 120 (20%) required CPAP. It was identified that the typical characteristics of patients requiring early CPAP were: male (P=.013) with a median age of 68 years (P=.000), oxygen saturation of 92% (P=.000), temperature ≥38°C (P=.008), respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute (P=.000) and had received pre-hospital oxygen therapy before arriving at the ED (P=.000). The CPAP group was divided into two subgroups: patients who had received pre-hospital oxygen therapy and those who had not. The median respiratory rate values between the two subgroups presented a statistically significant difference (P=.004). CONCLUSION: This study identified the characteristics of a typical patient with COVID-19 who requires early CPAP. Based on the results, the authors have devised a triage flow chart that uses selected vital signs measurements (oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and receipt of pre-hospital oxygen therapy) to identify patients requiring early CPAP. This flow chart should be trialled in a prospective study before it is used to inform clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Vital Signs , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104899, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. The primary outcome was the change in clinical status based on a 7-category ordinal scale (1 = not hospitalised, resuming normal daily activities; 7 = deceased). The 35 patients enrolled from February 23 to March 20, 2020, included 18 in intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 in our infectious diseases ward (IDW). The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. The median follow-up was 39 days (IQR 25-44). At day 28, 14 (82.3 %) patients from IDW were discharged, two were still hospitalized and one died (5.9 %), whereas in ICU 6 (33.3 %) were discharged, 8 (44.4 %) patients died, three (16.7 %) were still mechanically ventilated and one (5.6 %) was improved but still hospitalized. Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively). Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed. Ongoing randomised controlled trials will clarify its real efficacy and safety, who to treat, and when.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Compassionate Use Trials/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood , Treatment Outcome
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103168, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064985

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading in Italy and Lombardy is one of the most affected region. Cancer patients are higher risk of complication from COVID-19 complications; therefore they should be protected from contagion while still ensuring access to cancer care. The aim of this article is to suggest a strategy to reorganize hospital spaces and Healthcare Professionals (HCPs) staff in order to avoid COVID-19 nosocomial infection in an Oncology ward. SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets and by contact. We speculated that precautions against droplet and contact transmission should be the proper way to preserve ward from COVID-19. The essence of our protocol involves: triage outside of the ward, identification of risk zones, traffic control, surveillance of all the involved subjects. Whoever attends the ward must follow the general risk prevention and mitigation measures. The application of this practical strategy can contribute to breaking the cycle of community-hospital-community transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Utopias , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13946, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoalbuminemia is frequently observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection although its underlying mechanism and relationship with the clinical outcome still need to be clarified. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated in patients with COVID-19 hospitalised at the Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia, its association with the severity of COVID-19, with the levels of C-reactive protein, d-dimer and interleukin-6 and with clinical outcome over a follow-up period of 30 days. Urinalysis was evaluated in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels <30 g/L were found in 105/207 (50.7%) patients at hospital admission. Overall, the median albumin value was 29.5 g/L (IQR 25-32.8). A negative association was found between albumin levels and severity of COVID-19 (P < .0001) and death (P = .003). An inverse correlation was observed between albumin and both C-reactive protein and D-dimer at hospital admission (r = -.487 and r = -.479, respectively; P < .0001). Finally, a positive correlation was found between albumin levels and eGFR (r = .137; P = .049). Proteinuria was observed in 75% of patients with available data and it did not differ between patients with hypoalbuminemia and those with albumin ≥30 g/L (81% and 67%, respectively; P = .09). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, hypoalbuminemia is common and observed in quite an early stage of pulmonary disease. It is strictly associated with inflammation markers and clinical outcome. The common finding of proteinuria, even in the absence of creatinine increase, indicates protein loss as a possible biomarker of local and systemic inflammation worthwhile to evaluate disease severity in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Proteinuria , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Proteinuria/complications , Retrospective Studies
9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100550, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated to microvascular alterations. We screened the fundus of patients with COVID-19 to detect alterations of the retina and its vasculature and to assess possible correlations with clinical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The presence of retinal alterations in patients with COVID-19 and subjects unexposed to the virus was assessed using fundus photographs and their prevalence was compared. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were compared between patients and unexposed subjects with multiple linear regression including age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking/alcohol consumption, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes as covariates. The influence of clinical/lab parameters on retinal findings was tested in COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: 54 patients and 133 unexposed subjects were enrolled. Retinal findings in COVID-19 included: haemorrhages (9·25%), cotton wools spots (7·4%), dilated veins (27·7%), tortuous vessels (12·9%). Both MAD and MVD were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (98·3 ± 15·3 µm vs 91·9 ± 11·7 µm, p = 0.006 and 138·5 ± 21·5 µm vs 123·2 ± 13·0 µm, p<0.0001, respectively). In multiple regression accounting for covariates MVD was positively associated with COVID-19 both in severe (coefficient 30·3, CI95% 18·1-42·4) and non-severe (coefficient 10·3, CI95% 1·6-19·0) cases compared to unexposed subjects. In COVID-19 patients MVD was negatively correlated with the time from symptoms onset (coefficient -1·0, CI 95% -1·89 to -0·20) and positively correlated with disease severity (coefficient 22·0, CI 95% 5·2-38·9). INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 can affect the retina. Retinal veins diameter seems directly correlated with the disease severity. Its assessment could have possible applications in the management of COVID-19. FUNDING: None.

10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 76: 36-42, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, targets IL-6 receptors blocking downstream pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6. In preliminary reports it was suggested to be beneficial in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective study we describe clinical characteristics and outcome of 51 patients hospitalized with confirmed and severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with tocilizumab intravenously. All patients had elevated IL-6 plasma level (>40 pg/mL) and oxygen saturation <93% in ambient air. Clinical outcomes, oxygen support, laboratory data and adverse events were collected over a follow-up of 30 days. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (88%) were on high-flow oxygen supplementation, six of whom with invasive ventilation. From baseline to day 7 after tocilizumab we observed a dramatic drop of body temperature and CRP value with a significant increase in lymphocyte count (p<0.001). Over a median follow-up time of 34 days from tocilizumab, 34 patients (67%) showed an improvement in their clinical severity class; 31 were discharged; 17 (33%) showed a worsening of their clinical status, of these 14 died (27%). The mortality rate was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation at baseline (83.3% vs 20% of patients on non-invasive oxygen support; p=0.0001). The most frequent side effects were an increase of hepatic enzymes (29%), thrombocytopenia (14%), and serious bacterial and fungal infections (27%). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab exerts a rapidly beneficial effect on fever and inflammatory markers, although no significant impact on the clinical outcome can be inferred by our results. Critically ill patients seem to have a high risk of serious infections with this drug.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/drug therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1637-1640, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-87346

ABSTRACT

This report describes the isolation, molecular characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of the first three complete genomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated from three patients involved in the first outbreak of COVID-19 in Lombardy, Italy. Early molecular epidemiological tracing suggests that SARS-CoV-2 was present in Italy weeks before the first reported cases of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Genomics/methods , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Regression Analysis
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