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National Journal of Community Medicine ; 14(5):308-315, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242693


Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis is still a public health problem, and surveillance data analysis has not been done much. Recently a global pandemic of COVID-19 has the potential in disturbing TB elimination programs and treatment. This study aims to comprehensively analyse the incidence rate (IR) and Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of pulmonary tuberculosis in East Java from 2015–2020 and during COVID-19 and the strategies for optimizing tuberculosis disease control. Methodology: The study analyzed annual surveillance data using an analytical descriptive design. The Variables were analyzed with Spearman correlation with a level of evidence of 95% (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in East Java fluctuated from 2015–2020. In 2020 and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases and morbidity rates increased. Statistic results confirm the presence of a significant correlation between the values of Incidence rate (IR) and Case Fatality rate (CFR) (p = 0.032), IR and Treatment Success Rate (TSR) (p = 0.020), and CFR and TSR (p = 0.002). Population density is not correlated with the number of new cases (p = 0.667). Treatment rates have increased to 51%;cure and treatment rates have decreased to 76% and 89%, respectively, and there was a 4% increase in mortality during COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 has tremendously affected the treatment of pulmonary TB cases in East Java, Indonesia by increasing the incidence rate and decreasing the fatality rate. The pandemic promotes fear in the community to check their medical status and improve the quality of their health in East Java. © The Authors retain the copyrights of this article, with first publication rights granted to Medsci Publications.

Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(6 Supplement):942-947, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240161


Carbapenem administration is an important therapy for nosocomial infections due to MDRO, especially Acinetobacter baumannii. The global increase in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) that causes this pathogen has significantly threatened public health due to the lack of adequate treatment options due to the very few currently available antimicrobial agents that actively fight CRAB. Antimicrobial resistance is a major negative impact of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing. Ineffective empiric treatment (initial antibiotic regimen not sensitive to identified pathogens based on in vitro sensitivity test results) is associated with a higher rate of deaths compared to effective empiric treatment. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between the suitability of empiric and definitive antibiotics and the clinical outcomes of patients with bacteremia due to CRAB treated in the inpatient ward of Dr. Soetomo Tertiary Referral Hospital, Surabaya. There were 227 isolates of bacteremia due to CRAB, consisting of 156 carbapenem-resistant A. baumanni and 71 carbapenem-sensitive A. baumannii. There were 88 isolates that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and all of them were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin. A total of 29.5% of the isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, 3.4% of the isolates were sensitive to tigecycline, and 2.3% of the isolates were sensitive to amikacin, levofloxacin, and cefoperazone sulbactam. Adequate empirical antibiotics and definitive antibiotics (sensitive based on culture sensitivity test) amounted to 12.5% and 27.3%, respectively. There is no significant correlation between the suitability of empiric and definitive therapies with the patients' clinical outcomes (death and length of stay).Copyright © 2022 Phcogj.Com.

Bali Medical Journal ; 12(1):416-422, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2319691


Background: The global Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is superimposed on the ongoing Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs) pandemic. Bacterial co-infection, particularly those caused by MDROs, is one of the risk factors linked to higher morbidity and mortality rates in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to compare critical priority MDROs profile causing bacteremia in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during a pandemic. Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital from April 2020 to December 2021. This study used a consecutive sampling technique, which included and analyzed all identified microorganism isolates from blood specimens that met the inclusion criteria. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare MDRO profiles between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, which is significant if p < 0.05. Results: The total proportion of critical priority MDRO isolates in COVID-19 patients was 90/390 (23.08%), while in non-COVID-19 patients were 377/1446 (26.07%) isolates (p=0.228). Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) had a higher proportion of events in COVID-19 patients (12.05% vs. 7.05%, p < 0.001). In contrast, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) had a higher proportion of events in non-COVID patients (7.54% vs. 2.82%, p < 0.001). Acinetobacter baumannii exhibited a high level of resistance, with 149/223 (66.82%) of the isolates being CRAB, with the COVID-19 group accounting for 47/59 (79.66%) and the non-COVID-19 group accounting for 102/164 (62.19%;z = 2.438;p = 0.015). Conclusion: The high proportion and resistance rate of critical priority MDROs, CRAB particularly, among COVID-19 patients, highlights the importance of effective AMR control practices and prevention strategies during the pandemic. © 2023, Sanglah General Hospital. All rights reserved.

Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S46, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317511


Background and Aims: The covid-19 pandemic has reversed years of progress in the fight to end tuberculosis. So, the discovery of new drugs as antituberculosis is very much needed. Our previous studies have shown that the extract of Centella asiatica is able to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and requires further research. The aims of this study is to prove the effect of Centella asiatica inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rat model tuberculosis. Method(s): The protocol in this study was approved by the veterinary ethics committee of Airlangga University. The rat tuberculosis model was induced by intrathecal injection of a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37 Rv. Twenty-eight tuberculosis rat were randomly divided into four groups. Groups 1,2, and 3 were treated with ethanol extract of Centella asiatica at 375 mg/kgBW, 750 mg/kgBW and 1500 mg/kgBW, and the fourth group was the control group. Centella asiatica extract is administered orally via an intragastric feeding tube for two weeks, once daily At the end of the experimental period, rats were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The left lung tissue was taken aseptically and cultured on Middlebrook 7H10. Result(s): The results showed that there was no bacterial growth on the culture media in the group that received Centella asiatica extract at a dose of 750 and 1500 mg/kg BW. Conclusion(s): The conclusion in this study, that Centella asiatica extract inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at doses of 750 and 1500 mg/kg BW. We thank the Directorate of Research and Community Services, the Directorate General of Higher Education, and Ministry of Education and Culture in Indonesia for the financial supportCopyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.