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1.
Microorganisms ; 11(5)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232951

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (PA-CAP) were reported in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) necrotizing cavitary CAP with a fatal outcome in a 53-year-old man previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who was admitted for dyspnea, fever, cough, hemoptysis, acute respiratory failure and a right upper lobe opacification. Six hours after admission, despite effective antibiotic therapy, he experienced multi-organ failure and died. Autopsy confirmed necrotizing pneumonia with alveolar hemorrhage. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for PA serotype O:9 belonging to ST1184. The strain shares the same virulence factor profile with reference genome PA01. With the aim to better investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of PA-CAP, we considered the literature of the last 13 years concerning this topic. The prevalence of hospitalized PA-CAP is about 4% and has a mortality rate of 33-66%. Smoking, alcohol abuse and contaminated fluid exposure were the recognized risk factors; most cases presented the same symptoms described above and needed intensive care. Co-infection of PA-influenza A is described, which is possibly caused by influenza-inducing respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction: the same pathophysiological mechanism could be assumed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the high rate of fatal outcomes, additional studies are needed to identify sources of infections and new risk factors, along with genetic and immunological features. Current CAP guidelines should be revised in light of these results.

2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123807, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322666

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A growing number of evidences suggest that the combination of hyperinflammation, dysregulated T and B cell response and cytokine storm play a major role in the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. IL-6 is one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines and its levels are increased during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several observational and randomized studies demonstrated that tocilizumab, an IL-6R blocker, improves survival in critically ill patients both in infectious disease and intensive care units. However, despite transforming the treatment options for COVID-19, IL-6R inhibition is still ineffective in a fraction of patients. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the impact of two doses of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 who responded or not to the treatment by analyzing a panel of cytokines, chemokines and other soluble factors, along with the composition of peripheral immune cells, paying a particular attention to T and B lymphocytes. Results: We observed that, in comparison with non-responders, those who responded to tocilizumab had different levels of several cytokines and different T and B cells proportions before starting therapy. Moreover, in these patients, tocilizumab was further able to modify the landscape of the aforementioned soluble molecules and cellular markers. Conclusions: We found that tocilizumab has pleiotropic effects and that clinical response to this drug remain heterogenous. Our data suggest that it is possible to identify patients who will respond to treatment and that the administration of tocilizumab is able to restore the immune balance through the re-establishment of different cell populations affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, highlighting the importance of temporal examination of the pathological features from the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cytokines , Biomarkers
3.
Infection ; 2023 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295150

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: People with hematologic malignancies have a significantly higher risk of developing severe and protracted forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to immunocompetent patients, regardless of vaccination status. RESULTS: We describe two cases of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection with multiple relapses of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with follicular lymphoma treated with bendamustine and obinutuzumab or rituximab. The aim is to highlight the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this fragile group of patients and the necessity of evidence-based strategies to treat them properly. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hematological malignancies treated with bendamustine and anti-CD20 antibodies had a significant risk of prolonged and relapsing course of COVID-19. Specific preventive and therapeutic strategies should be developed for this group of patients.

5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123724, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269509

ABSTRACT

The formation of a robust long-term antigen (Ag)-specific memory, both humoral and cell-mediated, is created following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination. Here, by using polychromatic flow cytometry and complex data analyses, we deeply investigated the magnitude, phenotype, and functionality of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune memory in two groups of healthy subjects after heterologous vaccination compared to a group of subjects who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered patients show different long-term immunological profiles compared to those of donors who had been vaccinated with three doses. Vaccinated individuals display a skewed T helper (Th)1 Ag-specific T cell polarization and a higher percentage of Ag-specific and activated memory B cells expressing immunoglobulin (Ig)G compared to those of patients who recovered from severe COVID-19. Different polyfunctional properties characterize the two groups: recovered individuals show higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing one or two cytokines simultaneously, while the vaccinated are distinguished by highly polyfunctional populations able to release four molecules, namely, CD107a, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin (IL)-2. These data suggest that functional and phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity differ in recovered COVID-19 individuals and vaccinated ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , B-Lymphocytes , Memory B Cells , Interferons , Immunoglobulin G
7.
J Clin Med ; 12(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228143

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the introduction of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention was effective in reducing the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 patients without changes in the microbiological pattern of antibiotic resistance. This observational pre-post study included adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for severe respiratory failure related to SARS-CoV-2 admitted in three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from 22 February 2020 to 8 March 2022. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) was introduced from the end of April 2021 in the structured protocol for VAP prevention. The SDD consisted of a tobramycin sulfate, colistin sulfate, and amphotericin B suspension applied in the patient's oropharynx and the stomach via a nasogastric tube. Three-hundred-and-forty-eight patients were included in the study. In the 86 patients (32.9%) who received SDD, the occurrence of VAP decreased by 7.7% (p = 0.192) compared to the patients who did not receive SDD. The onset time of VAP, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms AP, the length of invasive mechanical ventilation, and hospital mortality were similar in the patients who received and who did not receive SDD. The multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders showed that the use of SDD reduces the occurrence of VAP (HR 0.536, CI 0.338-0.851; p = 0.017). Our pre-post observational study indicates that the use of SDD in a structured protocol for VAP prevention seems to reduce the occurrence of VAP without changes in the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1376, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212034

ABSTRACT

Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolution under Molnupiravir and Paxlovid, the only antivirals approved for COVID-19 treatment. By investigating SARS-CoV-2 variability in 8 Molnupiravir-treated, 7 Paxlovid-treated and 5 drug-naïve individuals at 4 time-points (Days 0-2-5-7), a higher genetic distance is found under Molnupiravir pressure compared to Paxlovid and no-drug pressure (nucleotide-substitutions/site mean±Standard error: 18.7 × 10-4 ± 2.1 × 10-4 vs. 3.3 × 10-4 ± 0.8 × 10-4 vs. 3.1 × 10-4 ± 0.8 × 10-4, P = 0.0003), peaking between Day 2 and 5. Molnupiravir drives the emergence of more G-A and C-T transitions than other mutations (P = 0.031). SARS-CoV-2 selective evolution under Molnupiravir pressure does not differ from that under Paxlovid or no-drug pressure, except for orf8 (dN > dS, P = 0.001); few amino acid mutations are enriched at specific sites. No RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or main proteases (Mpro) mutations conferring resistance to Molnupiravir or Paxlovid are found. This proof-of-concept study defines the SARS-CoV-2 within-host evolution during antiviral treatment, confirming higher in vivo variability induced by Molnupiravir compared to Paxlovid and drug-naive, albeit not resulting in apparent mutation selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Evolution, Molecular
9.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines recommend the tocilizumab use in patients with a CRP of >7.5 mg/dL. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab on mortality overall and after stratification for PaO2/FiO2 ratio and CRP levels. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary endpoint was day 28 mortality. Survival analysis was conducted to estimate the conditional and average causal effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models with a time-varying variable for the intervention. The hypothesis of the existence of effect measure modification by CRP and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was tested by including an interaction term in the model. RESULTS: In total, 992 patients, median age 69 years, 72.9% males, 597 (60.2%) treated with monotherapy, and 395 (31.8%), adding tocilizumab upon respiratory deterioration, were included. At BL, the two groups differed for median values of CRP (6 vs. 7 mg/dL; p < 0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (276 vs. 235 mmHg; p < 0.001). In the unadjusted analysis, the mortality was similar in the two groups, but after adjustment for key confounders, a significant effect of glucocorticoids + tocilizumab was observed (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.90). Although the study was not powered to detect interactions (p = 0.41), there was a signal for glucocorticoids + tocilizumab to have a larger effect in subsets, especially participants with high levels of CRP at intensification. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that glucocorticoids + tocilizumab vs. glucocorticoids alone confers a survival benefit only in patients with a CRP > 7.5 mg/dL prior to treatment initiation and the largest effect for a CRP > 15 mg/dL. Large randomized studies are needed to establish an exact cut-off for clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the global efforts to antagonize carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) spreading, it remains an emerging threat with a related mortality exceeding 40% among critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence concerning the best infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies to fight CRAB spreading in endemic hospitals. METHODS: The study was a critical review of the literature aiming to evaluate all available studies reporting IPC measures to control CRAB in ICU and outside ICU in both epidemic and endemic settings in the past 10 years. RESULTS: Among the 12 included studies, the majority consisted of research reports of outbreaks mostly occurred in ICUs. The reported mortality reached 50%. Wide variability was observed related to the frequency of application of recommended CRAB IPC measures among the studies: environmental disinfection (100%); contact precautions (83%); cohorting staff and patients (75%); genotyping (66%); daily chlorhexidine baths (58%); active rectal screening (50%); closing or stopping admissions to the ward (33%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite effective control of CRAB spreading during the outbreaks, the IPC measures reported were heterogeneous and highly dependent on the different setting as well as on the structural characteristics of the wards. Reinforced 'search and destroy' strategies both on the environment and on the patient, proved to be the most effective measures for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading.

11.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023071

ABSTRACT

A population pharmacokinetic analysis of dalbavancin was conducted in patients with different infection sites. Non-linear mixed effect modeling was used for pharmacokinetic analysis and covariate evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations assessed the probability of target attainment (PTA) of total dalbavancin concentration ≥ 8.04 mg/L over time (associated with ≥90% probability of optimal pharmacodynamic target attainment of fAUC24h/MIC > 111.1 against S. aureus) associated with a single or double dosage, one week apart, of 1000 or 1500 mg in patients with different classes of renal function. Sixty-nine patients with 289 concentrations were included. Most of them (53/69, 76.8%) had bone and joint infections. A two-compartment model adequately fitted dalbavancin concentration-time data. Creatinine clearance (CLCR) was the only covariate associated with dalbavancin clearance. Monte Carlo simulations showed that, in patients with severe renal dysfunction, the 1000 mg single or double one week apart dosage may ensure optimal PTAs of 2 and 5 weeks, respectively. In patients with preserved renal function, the 1500 mg single or double one-week apart dosage may ensure optimal PTAs of 2 and 4 to 6 weeks, respectively. Therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered mandatory for managing inter-individual variability and for supporting clinicians in long-term treatments of subacute and chronic infections.

12.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 590, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960513

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for developing severe COVID-19, but few detailed data are available concerning immunological changes after infection in aged individuals. Here we describe main immune characteristics in 31 patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection who were >70 years old, compared to 33 subjects <60 years of age. Differences in plasma levels of 62 cytokines, landscape of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T cell repertoire, transcriptome of central memory CD4+ T cells, specific antibodies are reported along with features of lung macrophages. Elderly subjects have higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more circulating plasmablasts, reduced plasmatic level of anti-S and anti-RBD IgG3 antibodies, lower proportions of central memory CD4+ T cells, more immature monocytes and CD56+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, lower percentages of circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh), antigen-specific cTfh cells with a less activated transcriptomic profile, lung resident activated macrophages that promote collagen deposition and fibrosis. Our study underlines the importance of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that inflammaging, coupled with the inability to mount a proper anti-viral response, could exacerbate disease severity and the worst clinical outcome in old patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , T Follicular Helper Cells
13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957212

ABSTRACT

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 represents a very huge global threat due to a higher incidence rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients and almost 50% of the 30-day mortality rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the first pathogen involved but uncommon non-fermenter gram-negative organisms such as Burkholderia cepacea and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia have emerged as other potential etiological causes. Against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative microorganisms, Ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) is considered a first-line option, even more so in case of a ceftolozane/tazobactam resistance or shortage. The aim of this report was to describe our experience with CZA in a case series of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU with VAP due to difficult-to-treat (DTT) P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacea, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and to compare it with data published in the literature. A total of 23 patients were treated from February 2020 to March 2022: 19/23 (82%) VAPs were caused by Pseudomonas spp. (16/19 DTT), 2 by Burkholderia cepacea, and 6 by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; 12/23 (52.1%) were polymicrobial. Septic shock was diagnosed in 65.2% of the patients and VAP occurred after a median of 29 days from ICU admission. CZA was prescribed as a combination regimen in 86% of the cases, with either fosfomycin or inhaled amikacin or cotrimoxazole. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 52.3% of the cases and the 30-day overall mortality rate was 14/23 (60.8%). Despite the high mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients, CZA, especially in combination therapy, could represent a valid treatment option for VAP due to DTT non-fermenter gram-negative bacteria, including uncommon pathogens such as Burkholderia cepacea and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938841

ABSTRACT

Specific T cells are crucial to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, avoid reinfection and confer protection after vaccination. We have studied patients with severe or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to patients who recovered from a severe or moderate infection that had occurred about 4 months before the analyses. In all these subjects, we assessed the polyfunctionality of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by quantifying cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with different SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools covering different proteins (M, N and S). In particular, we quantified the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells simultaneously producing interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-17, granzyme B, and expressing CD107a. Recovered patients who experienced a severe disease display high proportions of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines and are characterized by polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells. A similar profile was found in patients experiencing a moderate form of COVID-19 pneumonia. No main differences in polyfunctionality were observed among the CD8+ T cell compartments, even if the proportion of responding cells was higher during the infection. The identification of those functional cell subsets that might influence protection can thus help in better understanding the complexity of immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911148

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: -1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: -4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI -0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062; CT: 1.43, 95% CI -0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051; respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

16.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 706-713, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in immunocompetent critically ill patients is common and relates to a worsening outcome. In this large observational study, we evaluated the incidence and the risk factors associated with CMV reactivation and its effects on mortality in a large cohort of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to three ICUs from February 2020 to July 2021 were included. The patients were screened at ICU admission and once or twice per week for quantitative CMV-DNAemia in the blood. The risk factors associated with CMV blood reactivation and its association with mortality were estimated by adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: CMV blood reactivation was observed in 88 patients (20.4%) of the 431 patients studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score (HR 1031, 95% CI 1010-1053, p = 0.006), platelet count (HR 0.0996, 95% CI 0.993-0.999, p = 0.004), invasive mechanical ventilation (HR 2611, 95% CI 1223-5571, p = 0.013) and secondary bacterial infection (HR 5041; 95% CI 2852-8911, p < 0.0001) during ICU stay were related to CMV reactivation. Hospital mortality was higher in patients with (67.0%) than in patients without (24.5%) CMV reactivation but the adjusted analysis did not confirm this association (HR 1141, 95% CI 0.757-1721, p = 0.528). CONCLUSION: The severity of illness and the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of CMV blood reactivation, which, however, does not seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19 ICU patients independently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antibiotics ; 11(6):826, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894123

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-pandemic-related overload of health systems has compromised the application of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) models and infection prevention and control (IPC) programs. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on antimicrobial consumption (AC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the University Hospital of Modena. A time series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average model was conducted from January 2015 to October 2021 to evaluate the AC in the whole hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence density (ID) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to the main multidrug-resistant organisms, and of C. difficile infections (CDIs). After an initial peak during the COVID-19 period, a decrease in the trend of AC was observed, both at the hospital (CT: −1.104, p = 0.025) and ICU levels (CT: −4.47, p = 0.047), with no significant difference in the single classes. Among the Gram-negative isolates, we observed a significant increase only in the level of BSIs due to carbapenem-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CL: 1.477, 95% CI 0.130 to 2.824, p = 0.032). Considering Gram-positive bacteria, an increase in the level of BSIs due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and in the trend of CDIs were observed, though they did not reach statistical significance (CL: 0.72, 95% CI −0.039 to 1.48, p = 0.062;CT: 1.43, 95% CI −0.002 to 2.863, p = 0.051;respectively). Our findings demonstrated that the increases in AMR and AC that appeared in the first COVID-19 wave may be later controlled by restoring IPC and AS programs to pre-epidemic levels. A coordinated healthcare effort is necessary to address the longer-term impact of COVID-19 on AC to avoid irreversible consequences on AMR.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 848639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793008

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of excessive inspiratory effort in promoting alveolar and pleural rupture resulting in air leak (AL) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced acute respiratory failure (ARF) while on spontaneous breathing is undetermined. Methods: Among all patients with COVID-19 related ARF admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) and receiving non-invasive respiratory support, those developing an AL were and matched 1:1 [by means of PaO2/FiO2 ratio, age, body mass index-BMI and subsequent organ failure assessment (SOFA)] with a comparable population who did not (NAL group). Esophageal pressure (ΔPes) and dynamic transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL) swings were compared between groups. Risk factors affecting AL onset were evaluated. The composite outcome of ventilator-free-days (VFD) at day 28 (including ETI, mortality, tracheostomy) was compared between groups. Results: Air leak and NAL groups (n = 28) showed similar ΔPes, whereas AL had higher ΔPL (20 [16-21] and 17 [11-20], p = 0.01, respectively). Higher ΔPL (OR = 1.5 95%CI[1-1.8], p = 0.01), positive end-expiratory pressure (OR = 2.4 95%CI[1.2-5.9], p = 0.04) and pressure support (OR = 1.8 95%CI[1.1-3.5], p = 0.03), D-dimer on admission (OR = 2.1 95%CI[1.3-9.8], p = 0.03), and features suggestive of consolidation on computed tomography scan (OR = 3.8 95%CI[1.1-15], p = 0.04) were all significantly associated with AL. A lower VFD score resulted in a higher risk (HR = 3.7 95%CI [1.2-11.3], p = 0.01) in the AL group compared with NAL. RICU stay and 90-day mortality were also higher in the AL group compared with NAL. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing patients with COVID-19 related ARF, higher levels of ΔPL, blood D-dimer, NIV delivery pressures and a consolidative lung pattern were associated with AL onset.

19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779941

ABSTRACT

Although it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory response contributes to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, the pathways and mechanisms driving disease severity and clinical outcome remain poorly understood. In the effort to identify key soluble mediators that characterize life-threatening COVID-19, we quantified 62 cytokines, chemokines and other factors involved in inflammation and immunity in plasma samples, collected at hospital admission, from 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 disease who were stratified on the basis of clinical outcome (mechanical ventilation or death by day 28). Our data confirm that age, as well as neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, procalcitonin, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase are strongly associated with the risk of fatal COVID-19. In addition, we found that cytokines related to TH2 regulations (IL-4, IL-13, IL-33), cell metabolism (lep, lep-R) and interferons (IFNα, IFNß, IFNγ) were also predictive of life-threatening COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Chemokines , Humans , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 11-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772285

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an unpredictable infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The development of effective anti-COVID-19 vaccines has enormously minimized the risk of severe illness in most immunocompetent patients. However, unvaccinated patients and non-responders to the COVID-19 vaccine are at risk of shortand long-term consequences. In these patients, the outcome of COVID-19 relies on an interplay of multiple factors including age, immunocompetence, comorbidities, inflammatory response triggered by the virus as well as the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Generally, COVID-19 is asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in young people, but it may manifest with respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation in certain susceptible groups of patients. Furthermore, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces multiorgan failure syndrome by affecting liver, kidney heart and nervous system. Since December 2019, multiple drugs have been tested to treat COVID-19, but only a few have been proven effective to mitigate the course of the disease that continues to cause death and comorbidity worldwide. Current treatment of COVID-19 patients is essentially based on the administration of supportive oxygen therapy and the use of specific drugs such as steroids, anticoagulants, antivirals, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and immunomodulators. However, the rapid spread of new variants and the release of new data coming from the numerous ongoing clinical trials have created the conditions for maintaining a continuous updating of the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we believe that a well-established therapeutic strategy along with the continuum of medical care for all patients with COVID-19 is pivotal to improving disease outcomes and restoring healthcare care fragmentation caused by the pandemic. This narrative review, focusing on the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients, aimed to provide an overview of current therapies for (i) asymptomatic or mildly/moderate symptomatic patients, (ii) hospitalized patients requiring low-flow oxygen, (iii) high-flow oxygen and (iv) mechanical ventilation.

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