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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221137443, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viral load varies during infection and is higher during the initial stages of disease. Given the importance of the intensive care unit (ICU) in the late stages of COVID-19 infection, analyzing cycle threshold values to detect viral load upon ICU admission can be a clinically valuable tool for identifying patients with the highest mortality risk. METHODS: This was a retrospectively designed study. Patients older than 18 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR and had a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 were included in the study. The patient population was divided into two groups: survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included in the study. In non-survivors, age, relevant ICU admission scores, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher whereas PaO2/FiO2 ratios and cycle threshold levels were significantly lower than in survivors. CONCLUSION: Viral load at ICU admission has significant prognostic value. In combination with age, comorbidities, and severity scores, viral load may assist clinicians in identifying individuals who need more intensive monitoring. Increased awareness may improve outcomes by allowing the more effective monitoring and treatment of patients. More prospective studies are needed to determine how a high viral load worsens disease and how to avoid irreversible results.

2.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(11): 4482-4490, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine represents a cornerstone in tackling the pandemic and with the approval of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in December 2020, it has become a beacon of hope for people around the world, including children. This study aimed to present the data on the humoral response and safety of vaccine in a cohort of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases receiving immunomodulatory treatments. METHODS: Forty-one children with paediatric rheumatic diseases were included and were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (two doses of 30 µg administered 3-4 weeks apart). To assess the humoral response, IgG antibodies developed against the S1/Receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein at baseline and 3-4 weeks after the second dose were measured. The possible local and systemic side effects and disease activity scores were evaluated during the study period. RESULTS: After the second dose of vaccine, markedly elevated anti-RBD IgG titres were observed in all patients with a median titre of 20 474 AU/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 6534-36 151] with a good safety profile. The median disease duration was 4.3 (IQR 3.5-5.6) years. In the cohort, 14 (34.1%) received conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs), 16 (39%) received biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) and 11 (26.8%) received a combined therapy (cDMARDs and bDMARDs). Patients treated with combined therapy [median 4695 (IQR 2764-26 491)] had significantly lower median titres of anti-RBD IgG than those receiving only cDMARDs. CONCLUSION: Paediatric rheumatic diseases patients receiving immunomodulatory treatments were able to mount an effective humoral response after two dose regimens of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine safely without interrupting their current treatments.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Rheumatic Diseases/chemically induced
3.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2022: 2826524, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064330

ABSTRACT

Background: Thorax computed tomography (CT) imaging is widely used as a diagnostic method in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia. Radiological differential diagnosis and isolation of other viral agents causing pneumonia in patients have gained importance, particularly during the pandemic. Aims: We aimed to investigate whether there is a difference between CT images from patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia compared to CT images of patients with pneumonia due to other viral agents and which finding may be more effective in diagnosis. Study Design. The study included 249 adult patients with pneumonia identified by thorax CT examination and with a positive COVID-19 RT-PCR test compared to 94 patients diagnosed with non-COVID-19 pneumonia (viral PCR positive but no bacterial or fungal agents detected in other cultures) between 2015 and 2019. CT images were retrospectively analyzed using the PACS system. CT findings were evaluated by two radiologists with 5 and 20 years of experience, in a blinded fashion, and the outcome was decided by consensus. Methods: Demographic data (age, gender, and known chronic disease) and CT imaging findings (percentage of involvement, number of lesions, distribution preference, dominant pattern, ground-glass opacity distribution pattern, nodule, tree in bud sign, interstitial changes, crazy paving sign, reversed halo sign, vacuolar sign, halo sign, vascular enlargement, linear opacities, traction bronchiectasis, peribronchial wall thickness, air trapping, pleural retraction, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, cavitation, mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy, dominant lesion size, consolidation, subpleural curvilinear opacities, air bronchogram, and pleural thickening) of the patients were evaluated. CT findings were also evaluated with the RSNA consensus guideline and the CORADS scoring system. Data were divided into two main groups-non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia-and compared statistically with chi-squared tests and multiple regression analysis of independent variables. Results: RSNA and CORADS classifications of CT scan images were able to successfully differentiate between positive and negative COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Statistically significant differences were found between the two patient groups in various categories including the percentage of involvement, number of lesions, distribution preference, dominant pattern, nodule, tree in bud, interstitial changes, crazy paving, reverse halo vascular enlargement, peribronchial wall thickness, air trapping, pleural retraction, pleural/pericardial effusion, cavitation, and mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis of independent variables found a significant effect in reverse halo sign (ß = 0.097, p < 0.05) and pleural effusion (ß = 10.631, p < 0.05) on COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Conclusion: The presence of reverse halo and absence of pleural effusion was found to be characteristic of COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore a reliable diagnostic tool to differentiate it from non-COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862941

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are highly protective against severe disease; however, vaccine breakthrough infections resulting in hospitalization may still occur in a small percentage of vaccinated individuals. We investigated whether the clinical and microbiological features and outcomes were different between hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were either fully vaccinated with Coronovac or not. All hospitalized COVID-19 patients who had at least one dose of Coronavac were included in the study. The oldest unvaccinated patients with comorbidities, who were hospitalized during the same period, were chosen as controls. All epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded and compared between the fully vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. There were 69 and 217 patients who had been either fully vaccinated with Coronavac or not, respectively. All breakthrough infections occurred in the first 3 months of vaccination. Fully vaccinated patients were older and had more comorbidities than unvaccinated patients. There were minor differences between the groups in symptoms, physical and laboratory findings, anti-spike IgG positivity rate and level, the severity of COVID-19, complications, and clinical improvement rate. The mortality rate of fully vaccinated patients was higher than the mortality rate in unvaccinated patients in univariate analysis, which was attributed to the fact that vaccinated patients were older and had more comorbidities. The severity and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with breakthrough COVID-19 after Coronavac vaccination were similar to those of unvaccinated patients. Our findings suggest that the immune response elicited by Coronovac could be insufficient to prevent COVID-19-related severe disease and death within 3 months of vaccination among elderly people with comorbidities.

5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(6): e13740, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has high mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), and vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is vital for this population. Although the humoral response to messenger RNA vaccines was shown to be impaired in KTR, there is a lack of data regarding the antibody response to inactivated vaccines. We investigated the antibody response to two consequent doses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac; Sinovac Biotech, China). METHODS: A total of 118 patients from two centers were included. The levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin-G antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike antigens were determined with enzyme immunoassay (DIA.PRO; Milano, Italy) before the vaccine and one month after the second dose of the vaccine. Thirty-three patients were excluded due to antibody positivity in the serum samples obtained before vaccination. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients, 47 of whom were female, with a mean age of 46 ± 12, were included in the statistical analysis. The maintenance immunosuppressive therapy comprised tacrolimus (88.2%), mycophenolate (63.6%), and low-dose steroids (95.3%) in the majority of the patients. After a median of 31 days following the second dose of the vaccine, only 16 (18.8%) patients developed an antibody response. The median (IQR) antibody level was 52.5 IU/ml (21.5-96). Age (48 vs. 38, p = .005) and serum creatinine levels (1.14 vs. 0.91, p = .04) were higher in non-responders and were also found to be independently associated with the antibody response (odds ratio (OR): 0.93, p = 0.012 and 0.15, p = 0.045, respectively) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found the antibody response to the inactivated vaccine to be considerably low (18.8%) in KTR. Increased age and impaired renal function were associated with worse antibody response. Based on the knowledge that mRNA vaccines yield better humoral responses, this special population might be considered for additional doses of mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Inactivated , mRNA Vaccines
6.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(3): 178-184, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437790

ABSTRACT

For COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) cases, detecting host-based factors that predispose to infection is a very important research area. In this study, the aim is to investigate the MBL2 and NOS3 gene polymorphisms in COVID-19 patients with lung involvement, whose first nasopharyngeal PCR results were negative. Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between April-June 2020 who were admitted to a university hospital, and 100 healthy controls were included. In the first statistical analysis performed between PCR-positive, CT-negative and PCR-negative, CT-positive patients; the AB of MBL2 genotype was significantly higher in the first group (p = 0.049). The B allele was also significantly higher in the same subgroup (p = 0.001). The absence of the AB genotype was found to increase the risk of CT positivity by 6.9 times. The AB genotype of MBL2 was higher in healthy controls (p = 0.006). The absence of the AB genotype was found to increase the risk of CT positivity; also, it can be used for early detection and isolation of patients with typical lung involvement who had enough viral loads, but whose initial PCR results were negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mannose-Binding Lectin , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
7.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Serum D-dimer levels, as well as other biomarkers related to coagulation, are significantly elevated during severe community acquired pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of plasma D-dimer levels determining the severity of inflammation and prognosis in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively chart reviewed medical records of pediatric patients (< 18 years of age) admitted to Istanbul Fcaulty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease Service between March 11, and June 30, 2020. We collected demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiographic data. RESULTS: A hundred and seventy-one pediatric patients (1 - 216 months of age) admitted to pediatric infecitous disease service included in this study. Patients were classified into 4 categories; 1) COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR, 2) Suspected COVID-19 infection due to close exposure history and radiographic findings, 3) Lower respiratory tract infection other than COVID-19 confirmed with multiplex respiratory viral panel, and 4) Systemic infections other than lower respiratory tract infection. Lymphopenia was observed significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 infection compared to patients with other respiratory viral infections (p=0.06). In patients with radiographic findings concerning for COVID-19 infection, elevated serum D-dimer levels were detected significantly higher than lymphopenia (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum D-dimer levels at baseline are associated with inflammation especially in patients with COVID-19 infection with radipgraphic findings. Monitoring serum D-dimer levels may be used for early identification of severe cases in children.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 756-762, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disease severity, previous medications and immunosuppressive agents could affect the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to analyze variables affecting the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included adult patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were admitted to a COVID-19 follow-up unit. Eight patient groups were defined in accordance with the results of thoracic computed tomography (CT), SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, and tocilizumab or anakinra use during active disease. Anti-S IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA in serum samples. Anti-S positive and negative cases were compared. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were positive in 82.8% of patients. SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity, extent of lung involvement on CT, and time to antibody testing were independently associated with antibody positivity. Tocilizumab, anakinra or prednisolone use was not a factor affecting the antibody response. The rate of antibody response and sample/CO values among antibody-positive patients showed a linear relationship with the extent of lung involvement on CT. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tocilizumab, anakinra and prednisolone for COVID-19 did not affect the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. The main driver of antibody response among patients with COVID-19 was the extent of pulmonary involvement on CT.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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