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1.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 595-606, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate healthcare system-driven variation in general characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU within one Western European region across three countries. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTING: Seven ICUs in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany. PATIENTS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients supported in the ICU during the first pandemic wave. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcome data were retrieved after ethical approval and data-sharing agreements. Descriptive statistics were performed to investigate country-related practice variation. From March 2, 2020, to August 12, 2020, 551 patients were admitted. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 29% were female. At admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 15.0 ± 5.5, 16.8 ± 5.5, and 15.8 ± 5.3 (p = 0.002), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were 4.4 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.2, and 7.7 ± 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the Belgian, Dutch, and German parts of Euregio, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 22%, 42%, and 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences were observed in the frequency of organ support, antimicrobial/inflammatory therapy application, and ICU capacity. Mixed-multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that differences in ICU mortality were independent of age, sex, disease severity, comorbidities, support strategies, therapies, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs within one region, the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, differed significantly in general characteristics, applied interventions, and outcomes despite presumed genetic and socioeconomic background, admission diagnosis, access to international literature, and data collection are similar. Variances in healthcare systems' organization, particularly ICU capacity and admission criteria, combined with a rapidly spreading pandemic might be important drivers for the observed differences. Heterogeneity between patient groups but also healthcare systems should be presumed to interfere with outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer , Treatment Outcome
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323191

ABSTRACT

Background: The peak of the global COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been reached and many countries face the prospect of a second wave of infections before effective vaccinations will be available. After an initial phase of viral replication, some patients develop a second illness phase in which the host thrombotic and inflammatory responses seems to drive complications. Severe COVID-19 disease is linked to high mortality, hyperinflammation, and a remarkably high incidence of thrombotic events. We hypothesize a crucial pathophysiological role for the contact pathway of coagulation and the kallikrein-bradykinin pathway. Therefore, drugs that modulate this excessive thromboinflammatory response should be investigated in severe COVID-19. Methods: In this adaptive, open-label multicenter randomized clinical trial we compare low molecular weight heparins at 50 IU anti-Xa/kg twice daily - or 75 IU anti-Xa twice daily for intensive care (ICU) patients - in combination with aprotinin to standard thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In the case of hyperinflammation, the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist anakinra will be added on top of the drugs in the interventional arm. In a pilot phase, the effect of the intervention on thrombotic markers (D-dimer) will be assessed. In the full trial, the primary outcome is defined as the effect of the interventional drugs on clinical status as defined by the WHO ordinal scale for clinical improvement. Discussion: In this trial we target the thromboinflammatory response at multiple levels. We intensify the dose of low molecular weight heparins to reduce thrombotic complications. Aprotinin is a potent kallikrein pathway inhibitor that reduces fibrinolysis, activation of the contact pathway of coagulation, and local inflammatory response. Additionally, aprotinin has shown in vitro inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Because the excessive thromboinflammatory response is one of the most adverse prognostic factors in COVID-19, we will add anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, to the regimen in case of severely increased inflammatory parameters. This way, we hope to modulate the systemic response to SARS-CoV-2 and avoid disease progressions with a potentially fatal outcome. Trial registration This trial is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register. Registration number: 2020-001739-28. Registered on 2020-04-10.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 734, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625506

ABSTRACT

Although male Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients have higher Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rates and a worse disease course, a comprehensive analysis of female and male ICU survival and underlying factors such as comorbidities, risk factors, and/or anti-infection/inflammatory therapy administration is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the association between sex and ICU survival, adjusting for these and other variables. In this multicenter observational cohort study, all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to seven ICUs in one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, and requiring vital organ support during the first pandemic wave were included. With a random intercept for a center, mixed-effects logistic regression was used to investigate the association between sex and ICU survival. Models were adjusted for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, comorbidities, and anti-infection/inflammatory therapy. Interaction terms were added to investigate effect modifications by sex with country and sex with obesity. A total of 551 patients (29% were females) were included. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years. Females were more often obese and smoked less frequently than males (p-value 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). APACHE II scores of females and males were comparable. Overall, ICU mortality was 12% lower in females than males (27% vs 39% respectively, p-value < 0.01) with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.62 (95%CI 0.39-0.96, p-value 0.032) after adjustment for age and APACHE II score, 0.63 (95%CI 0.40-0.99, p-value 0.044) after additional adjustment for comorbidities, and 0.63 (95%CI 0.39-0.99, p-value 0.047) after adjustment for anti-infection/inflammatory therapy. No effect modifications by sex with country and sex with obesity were found (p-values for interaction > 0.23 and 0.84, respectively). ICU survival in female SARS-CoV-2 patients was higher than in male patients, independent of age, disease severity, smoking, obesity, comorbidities, anti-infection/inflammatory therapy, and country. Sex-specific biological mechanisms may play a role, emphasizing the need to address diversity, such as more sex-specific prediction, prognostic, and therapeutic approach strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555018

ABSTRACT

This study introduces machine learning predictive models to predict the future values of the monitored vital signs of COVID-19 ICU patients. The main vital sign predictors include heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation. We investigated the performances of the developed predictive models by considering different approaches. The first predictive model was developed by considering the following vital signs: heart rate, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial, pulse pressure), respiration rate, and oxygen saturation. Similar to the first approach, the second model was developed using the same vital signs, but it was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out approach. The third predictive model was developed by considering three vital signs: heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2). The fourth model was a leave-one-subject-out model for the three vital signs. Finally, the fifth predictive model was developed based on the same three vital signs, but with a five-minute observation rate, in contrast with the aforementioned four models, where the observation rate was hourly to bi-hourly. For the five models, the predicted measurements were those of the three upcoming observations (on average, three hours ahead). Based on the obtained results, we observed that by limiting the number of vital sign predictors (i.e., three vital signs), the prediction performance was still acceptable, with the average mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) being 12%,5%, and 21.4% for heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiration rate, respectively. Moreover, increasing the observation rate could enhance the prediction performance to be, on average, 8%,4.8%, and 17.8% for heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiration rate, respectively. It is envisioned that such models could be integrated with monitoring systems that could, using a limited number of vital signs, predict the health conditions of COVID-19 ICU patients in real-time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Signs
6.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 595-606, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate healthcare system-driven variation in general characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU within one Western European region across three countries. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTING: Seven ICUs in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany. PATIENTS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients supported in the ICU during the first pandemic wave. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcome data were retrieved after ethical approval and data-sharing agreements. Descriptive statistics were performed to investigate country-related practice variation. From March 2, 2020, to August 12, 2020, 551 patients were admitted. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 29% were female. At admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 15.0 ± 5.5, 16.8 ± 5.5, and 15.8 ± 5.3 (p = 0.002), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were 4.4 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.2, and 7.7 ± 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the Belgian, Dutch, and German parts of Euregio, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 22%, 42%, and 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences were observed in the frequency of organ support, antimicrobial/inflammatory therapy application, and ICU capacity. Mixed-multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that differences in ICU mortality were independent of age, sex, disease severity, comorbidities, support strategies, therapies, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs within one region, the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, differed significantly in general characteristics, applied interventions, and outcomes despite presumed genetic and socioeconomic background, admission diagnosis, access to international literature, and data collection are similar. Variances in healthcare systems' organization, particularly ICU capacity and admission criteria, combined with a rapidly spreading pandemic might be important drivers for the observed differences. Heterogeneity between patient groups but also healthcare systems should be presumed to interfere with outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer , Treatment Outcome
8.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 290-293, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066463

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is one of the most frequent causes for referral to the ICU. A significant percentage of these patients does not survive the infection due to thromboembolic complications. Furthermore, the vascular system seems also to be involved in the pathogenesis. To investigate the role of hemostasis and endothelium on the outcome of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood was drawn from 16 ICU COVID-19 patients for hemostatic analysis. Patients were followed-up till discharge (n = 11) or death (n = 5). Parameters related to both coagulation and fibrinolysis, though disturbed, were not associated with mortality. Contrarily, activated Von Willebrand factor was increased and ADAMTS13 levels were decreased by two-fold in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Our data established the involvement of the Von Willebrand factor-ADAMTS13 axis in the COVID-19 pathogenesis, thereby demonstrating that these plasma proteins seem to be strong predictors for ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Extracorporeal Circulation , Female , Fibrinolysin/biosynthesis , Fibrinolysis , Hemostasis , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombin/biosynthesis
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(4): e241-e243, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956092

ABSTRACT

We report a case of necrotizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula and treated by decortication and salvage lobectomy. Owing to the unknown characteristics of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment of the abscess and bronchopleural fistula was delayed. This may have resulted in further deterioration of the patient, with ensuing multiple organ dysfunction. Complications of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, such as a bacterial abscess and a bronchopleural fistula, should be treated as if the patient were not infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Pleural Diseases/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100652, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies investigate the role of pharmacological treatments on disease course in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sex disparities in genetics, immunological responses, and hormonal mechanisms may underlie the substantially higher fatality rates reported in male COVID-19 patients. To optimise care for COVID-19 patients, prophylactic and therapeutic studies should include sex-specific design and analyses. Therefore, in this scoping review, we investigated whether studies on pharmacological treatment in COVID-19 were performed based on a priori sex-specific design or post-hoc sex-specific analyses. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, UpToDate, clinical trial.org, and MedRxiv for studies on pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 until June 6th, 2020. We included case series, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies in humans (≥18 years) investigating antiviral, antimalarial, and immune system modulating drugs. Data were collected on 1) the proportion of included females, 2) whether sex stratification was performed (a priori by design or post-hoc), and 3) whether effect modification by sex was investigated. FINDINGS: 30 studies were eligible for inclusion, investigating remdesivir (n = 2), lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 5), favipiravir (n = 1), umifenovir (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (n = 8), convalescent plasma (n = 6), interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway inhibitors (n = 5), interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway inhibitors (n = 1) and corticosteroids (n = 3). Only one study stratified its data based on sex in a post-hoc analysis, whereas none did a priori by design. None of the studies investigated effect modification by sex. A quarter of the studies included twice as many males as females. INTERPRETATION: Analyses assessing potential interference of sex with (side-)effects of pharmacological therapy for COVID-19 are rarely reported. Considering sex differences in case-fatality rates and genetic, immunological, and hormonal mechanisms, studies should include sex-specific analyses in their design to optimise COVID-19 care. FUNDING: None.

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