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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308437

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulation disorders, in particular high levels of D-dimers, and increased frequency of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We explore the association between D-dimers at admission and in-hospital mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without symptomatic VTE. Methods: : From February 26 to April 20, 2020, D-dimer level at admission and outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in medical wards (in-hospital mortality or VTE) were retrospectively analyzed in a multicenter study in 24 French hospitals. Results: : Among 2878 patients enrolled in the study, 1154 (40.9%) patients had D-dimer measurement at admission. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified D-dimer level above 1128 ng/mL as the optimum cutoff value to predict in-hospital mortality (Area Under the Curve of 64.9% (95% CI 0.60–0.69) with a sensitivity of 71.1% (95% CI 0.62–0.78) and a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 0.52–0.58) that not differ in the subgroup of patients with VTE during hospitalization. Among 609 (52.8%) patients with D-dimers level < 1128 ng/mL at admission, only 35 (5.7%) deaths occurred during hospitalization. After adjustment, in a cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models, D-dimers above 1128 ng/mL at admission were also associated to a worth prognosis with a OR of 3.07 (95% CI 2.05–4.69, p < 0.001) and an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.11 (95%CI 1.31–3.4, p < 0.01). Conclusions: : D-dimer level over 1128 ng/mL is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients in medical ward, regardless the occurrence of VTE during hospitalization.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684157

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: D-dimer measurement is a safe tool to exclude pulmonary embolism (PE) but its specificity decreases in COVID-19. Our aim was to derive a new algorithm with specific D-dimer threshold in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a French multicenter, retrospective cohort study among 774 COVID-19 patients with suspected PE. D-dimer threshold adjusted to computed tomography (CT) extent of lung damage was derived in a patient set (n=337), and its safety assessed in an independent validation set (n=337). RESULTS: According to ROC curves, in the derivation set D-dimer safely excluded PE, with one false negative when using a 900 ng/mL threshold when lung damage extent was <50% and 1700 ng/mL when lung damage extent was ≥50%. In the derivation set, the algorithm sensitivity was 98.2% (95% CI: 94.7-100.0) and its specificity 28.4% (95% CI: 24.1-32.3). The negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01-0.44) and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.60-0.67). In the validation set, sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% (95% CI: 88.7-99.6) and 39.2% (95% CI: 32.2-46.1), respectively. The NLR was 0.08 (95% CI; 0.02-0.33) and the AUC did not differed from that of the derivation set (0.68 ,95% CI: 0.64-0.72, P = 0.097). Using the Co-LEAD algorithm, 76/250 (30.4%) COVID-19 patients with suspected PE could have been managed without CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). CONCLUSION: The Co-LEAD algorithm safely excludes PE, and allows reducing the use of CTPA among COVID-19 patients. Further prospective studies are necessary to validate this strategy.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 700292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435983

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 19 is a well-established cause of rare arterial thrombosis. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of arterial thrombosis remains to be elucidated. We herein report the case of a large floating thrombus of the aortic arch, its surgical management and histological analysis. Case: A 65-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with a suspected stroke. He was non-smoker, but presented cardiovascular risk factors, namely hypertension, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. A computed tomography of the aorta revealed a large floating thrombus of the aortic arch, at the base of the brachiocephalic trunk, suspected to be the etiology of stroke. Therapeutic anticoagulation was immediately started. The decision was made to perform an open aortic replacement surgery because of the symptomatic thromboembolic event with recent cerebral infarction and the potential harmfulness of the thrombus due to its size. A mobile thrombus was observed at the base of the brachiocephalic trunk by echocardiography. It was attached to a small area of the upper aortic wall and had an irregular surface. Histology revealed a platelet-rich thrombus lying on an aortic atherosclerotic plaque without pronounced inflammation. No plaque ulceration was present but endothelial cell desquamation was observed consistent with plaque erosion. Conclusion: In our case, there was a thrombus lying on an atherosclerotic plaque with intact thick fibrous cap, but associated with a plaque erosion mechanism. The thrombus formation appeared more likely to relate to a very localized endothelial injury.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(8): e018624, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189969

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with thrombotic outcomes with coagulation and endothelial disorders. Based on that, several anticoagulation guidelines have been proposed. We aimed to determine whether anticoagulation therapy modifies the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with COVID-19 initially admitted in medical wards of 24 French hospitals were included prospectively from February 26 to April 20, 2020. We used a Poisson regression model, Cox proportional hazard model, and matched propensity score to assess the effect of anticoagulation on outcomes (intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality). The study enrolled 2878 patients with COVID-19, among whom 382 (13.2%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization. After adjustment, anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88). Analyses performed using propensity score matching confirmed that anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29-0.63) for intensive care unit admission and adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.98) for composite criteria intensive care unit admission or death. In contrast, therapeutic or prophylactic low- or high-dose anticoagulation started during hospitalization were not associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusions Anticoagulation therapy used before hospitalization in medical wards was associated with a better prognosis in contrast with anticoagulation initiated during hospitalization. Anticoagulation therapy introduced in early disease could better prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endotheliopathy, and lead to a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
5.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 381-393, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulation disorders, in particular high concentrations of D-dimer, and increased frequency of venous thromboembolism. AIM: To explore the association between D-dimer at admission and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19, with or without symptomatic venous thromboembolism. METHODS: From 26 February to 20 April 2020, D-dimer concentration at admission and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and venous thromboembolism) of patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in medical wards were retrospectively analysed in a multicenter study in 24 French hospitals. RESULTS: Among 2878 patients enrolled in the study, 1154 (40.1%) patients had D-dimer measurement at admission. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL as the best cut-off value for in-hospital mortality (area under the curve 64.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 60-69), with a sensitivity of 71.1% (95% CI 62-78) and a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 52-58), which did not differ in the subgroup of patients with venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation. Among 545 (47.2%) patients with D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission, 86 (15.8%) deaths occurred during hospitalisation. After adjustment, in Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models, D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission was also associated with a worse prognosis, with an odds ratio of 3.07 (95% CI 2.05-4.69; P<0.001) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.4; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a medical ward, regardless of the occurrence of venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Thrombophilia/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Electronic Health Records , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Patients' Rooms , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 586307, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954333

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. Objectives: To explore clinical and biological parameters of COVID-19 patients with hospitalization criteria that could predict referral to intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Analyzing the clinical and biological profiles of COVID-19 patients at admission. Results: Among 99 consecutive patients that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization, 48 were hospitalized in the medicine department, 21 were first admitted to the medicine ward department and referred later to ICU, and 30 were directly admitted to ICU from the emergency department. At admission, patients requiring ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2, a D-dimer level above 1,000 ng/mL, and a higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (Hs-cTnI) level. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified Hs-cTnI above 9.75 pg/mL as the best predictive criteria for ICU referral [area under the curve (AUC), 86.4; 95% CI, 76.6-96.2]. This cutoff for Hs-cTnI was confirmed in univariate [odds ratio (OR), 22.8; 95% CI, 6.0-116.2] and multivariate analysis after adjustment for D-dimer level (adjusted OR, 20.85; 95% CI, 4.76-128.4). Transthoracic echocardiography parameters subsequently measured in 72 patients showed an increased right ventricular (RV) afterload correlated with Hs-cTnI (r = 0.42, p = 0.010) and D-dimer (r = 0.18, p = 0.047). Conclusion: Hs-cTnI appears to be the best relevant predictive factor for referring COVID-19 patients to ICU. This result associated with the correlation of D-dimer with RV dilatation probably reflects a myocardial injury due to an increased RV wall tension. This reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular thrombosis inducing a higher RV afterload.

7.
Thromb Res ; 197: 94-99, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912640

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. Previous studies reported pulmonary embolism (PE) in severe COVID-19 patients. Aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of symptomatic PE in COVID-19 patients and to identify the clinical, radiological or biological characteristics associated with PE. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study in 2 French hospitals. Controls were matched in a 1:2 ratio on the basis of age, sex and center. PE patients with COVID-19 were compared to patients in whom PE was ruled out (CTPA controls) and in whom PE has not been investigated (CT controls). RESULTS: PE was suspected in 269 patients among 1042 COVID-19 patients, and confirmed in 59 patients (5.6%). Half of PE was diagnosed at COVID-19 diagnosis. PE patients did not differ from CT and CTPA controls for thrombosis risk factors. PE patients more often required invasive ventilation compared to CTPA controls (odds ratio (OR) 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-5.84) and to CT controls (OR 8.07; 95% CI 2.70-23.82). PE patients exhibited more extensive parenchymal lesions (>50%) than CT controls (OR 3.90; 95% CI 1.54-9.94). D-dimer levels were 5.1 (95% CI 1.90-13.76) times higher in PE patients than CTPA controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a PE prevalence in COVID-19 patients close to 5% in the whole population and to 20% of the clinically suspected population. PE seems to be associated with more extensive lung damage and to require more frequently invasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Chest Pain/etiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Tachycardia/etiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2391-2399, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. OBJECTIVES: To explore the coagulopathy and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study analyzed clinical and biological profiles of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection at admission, including hemostasis tests and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs). RESULTS: Among 96 consecutive COVID-19-suspected patients fulfilling criteria for hospitalization, 66 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to present with fever (P = .02), cough (P = .03), and pneumonia at computed tomography (CT) scan (P = .002) at admission. Prevalence of D-dimer >500 ng/mL was higher in COVID-19-positive patients (74.2% versus 43.3%; P = .007). No sign of disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified. Adding D-dimers >500 ng/mL to gender and pneumonia at CT scan in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis significantly increased area under the curve for COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19-positive patients had significantly more CECs at admission (P = .008) than COVID-19-negative ones. COVID-19-positive patients treated with curative anticoagulant prior to admission had fewer CECs (P = .02) than those without. Interestingly, patients treated with curative anticoagulation and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers had even fewer CECs (P = .007). CONCLUSION: Curative anticoagulation could prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endothelial lesion.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemostasis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Angiogenesis ; 23(4): 611-620, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease has been associated with ischemic complications, coagulation disorders, and an endotheliitis. OBJECTIVES: To explore endothelial damage and activation-related biomarkers in COVID-19 patients with criteria of hospitalization for referral to intensive care unit (ICU) and/or respiratory worsening. METHODS: Analysis of endothelial and angiogenic soluble markers in plasma from patients at admission. RESULTS: Study enrolled 40 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to emergency department that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization. Half of them were admitted in conventional wards without any ICU transfer during hospitalization; whereas the 20 others were directly transferred to ICU. Patients transferred in ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2 and increased D-dimer, CRP and creatinine levels. In those patients, soluble E-selectin and angiopoietin-2 were significantly increased (p value at 0.009 and 0.003, respectively). Increase in SELE gene expression (gene coding for E-selectin protein) was confirmed in an independent cohort of 32 patients using a whole blood gene expression profile analysis. In plasma, we found a strong association between angiopoetin-2 and CRP, creatinine and D-dimers (with p value at 0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). ROC curve analysis identified an Angiopoietin-2 cut-off of 5000 pg/mL as the best predictor for ICU outcome (Se = 80.1%, Sp = 70%, PPV = 72.7%, NPV = 77%), further confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjustment for creatinine, CRP or D-dimers. CONCLUSION: Angiopoietin-2 is a relevant predictive factor for ICU direct admission in COVID-19 patients. This result showing an endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Angiopoietin-2/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Critical Care/methods , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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