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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810358

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a group of infections, caused by multiple fungal species, which affect many human organs and is lethal in immunocompromised patients. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current wave of mucormycosis is a challenge to medical professionals as its effects are multiplied because of the severity of COVID-19 infection. The variant of concern, Omicron, has been linked to fatal mucormycosis infections in the US and Asia. Consequently, current postdiagnostic treatments of mucormycosis have been rendered unsatisfactory. In this hour of need, a preinfection cure is needed that may prevent lethal infections in immunocompromised individuals. This study proposes a potential vaccine construct targeting mucor and rhizopus species responsible for mucormycosis infections, providing immunoprotection to immunocompromised patients. The vaccine construct, with an antigenicity score of 0.75 covering, on average, 92-98% of the world population, was designed using an immunoinformatics approach. Molecular interactions with major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-I), Toll-like receptors-2 (TLR2), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), with scores of -896.0, -948.4, and -925.0, respectively, demonstrated its potential to bind with the human immune receptors. It elicited a strong predicted innate and adaptive immune response in the form of helper T (Th) cells, cytotoxic T (TC) cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. The vaccine cloned in the pBR322 vector showed positive amplification, further solidifying its stability and potential. The proposed construct holds a promising approach as the first step towards an antimucormycosis vaccine and may contribute to minimizing postdiagnostic burdens and failures.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765701

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the educational system has focused more on the holistic development of an individual. Modern technology has changed the educational environment to provide students with better academic opportunities. Along with the education system, teaching techniques and learning tools have also changed with digital evolution. This research was undertaken to assess the academic performance of interactive teaching methods in offline and online platforms in Periodontics among BDS undergraduates at a dental college in India. This prospective study was conducted among 49 students: Group I (n = 24, online class through Zoom) and Group II (n = 25, offline classes). The subject was divided into three modules and was covered in one week. The topics covered, teaching methods, lectures, and activities were similar for both groups. A formative assessment mark was obtained from written tests during the module, whereas the summative assessment mark was recorded from exams conducted towards the end of the module. In the results, a statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of formative assessment between Group I (77.88 ± 12.89) and Group II (77.80 ± 16.09) (p = 0.98). In addition, a statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of summative assessment between Group I (80.54 ± 8.39) and Group II (80.28 ± 11.57) (p = 0.93). Overall, this study suggests that interactive teaching methods in both offline and online platforms in Periodontics showed equivalent performance by the undergraduate dental students.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , Students , Humans , India , Learning , Prospective Studies , Teaching
3.
Int J Dent ; 2021: 9963329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460064

ABSTRACT

In the Southeast Asian region, various policies have been advocated by health regulatory bodies that entail protective measures such as face masks, gloves, maintaining distance in public areas, and more. These protective measures are aimed at helping reverse the growth rate of the coronavirus. Dentists in this region have incorporated several changes to their practices to help minimize risks of person-to-person transmission inside dental offices. This narrative review aimed to provide an in-depth overview of the current situation in the Southeast Asian region regarding the use of teledentistry during the pandemic. Teledentistry involves the transfer of patient information across remote distances for online consultation and treatment planning. A few years back, it used to be a lesser-known entity but has seen an exponential rise in its incorporation into dental practices all around the Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) region. Many clinics in the Southeast Asian region have started using online consultations to ensure that patients can be diagnosed or followed up during their treatment. Teledentistry is the clear answer in the coming months as it will help reduce the risk of virus transmission and help patients get access to oral healthcare and dentists to see their patients. This article reviews the current pandemic situation in the ASEAN region, the recent evidence, and the scope of teledentistry. It also provides recommendations for the future and sheds light on the different types of teledentistry and how it can be incorporated into practices by regulatory authorities in this region.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers in general are at a high risk of potential infections with COVID-19, especially those who work with aerosol generating procedures. Dentists fall in this category, as not only do they operate with aerosol generating procedures but also operate within a face-to-face contact area. METHODS: A structured self-administered questionnaire was developed at Najran University and provided to the participants for data collection. The data collected included information on risk perception and incorporation of measures for protection against COVID-19 to gauge the attitude of dentists during this period. Also, clinical implementation of various protective measures was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the n = 322 dentists that answered the questions, 50% were general dentists and 28.9% were dentists working at specialist clinics, while the remaining 21.1% of dentists were employed in academic institutions. Among the newer additions to the clinic, 36.3% of dentists answered that they had added atomizers to their practices, followed by 26.4% of dentists that had incorporated the use of UV lamps for sterilization. We found that 18.9% dentists were using HEPA filters in their clinics, while 9.9% of dentists were making use of fumigation devices to control the risk of infection. One-way ANOVA was also carried out to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049) between groups of dentists utilizing HEPA filters, UV lamps, atomizers, and fumigation devices to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV2 across their workplaces. CONCLUSION: Dentists are aware of recently updated knowledge about the modes of transmission of COVID-19 and the recommended infection control measures in dental settings. A better understanding of the situation and methods to prevent it will ensure that the dental community is able to provide healthcare services to patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Dentists , Humans , Perception , RNA, Viral , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713169

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, and several other microorganisms, may be present in nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions in patients treated in dental practices, so an appropriate clinical behavior is required in order to avoid the dangerous spread of infections. COVID-19 could also be spread when patients touches a contaminated surface with infected droplets and then touch their nose, mouth, or eyes. It is time to consider a dental practice quite similar to a hospital surgery room, where particular attention should be addressed to problems related to the spreading of infections due to air and surface contamination. The effectiveness of conventional cleaning and disinfection procedures may be limited by several factors; first of all, human operator dependence seems to be the weak aspect of all procedures. The improvement of these conventional methods requires the modification of human behavior, which is difficult to achieve and sustain. As alternative sterilization methods, there are some that do not depend on the operator, because they are based on devices that perform the entire procedure on their own, with minimal human intervention. In conclusion, continued efforts to improve the traditional manual disinfection of surfaces are needed, so dentists should consider combining the use of proper disinfectants and no-touch decontamination technologies to improve sterilization procedures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Offices/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sterilization/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dental Offices/standards , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sterilization/standards
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