Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 93
Filter
1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930389

ABSTRACT

After the global cesarean delivery rate nearly doubled between 2000 and 2015, cesarean deliveries now account for nearly one third of births in the United States. Although rates have plateaued, the high national cesarean delivery rate has garnered criticism from both lay and academic communities because it has not been associated with improvements in maternal or neonatal outcomes. Efforts are underway to lower the cesarean delivery rate through implementation of hospital-level and national guidelines. However, the cesarean delivery rate that optimizes maternal and neonatal outcomes is not known. Defining a cesarean delivery rate that optimizes perinatal outcomes and reduces morbidity seems simple. However, there are a host of challenges to such a task, including determining the outcomes that are most meaningful to use, deciding the population that should define the rate, and incorporating person-centered decision making, given that people place different value on different outcomes. Rather than a "call" for cesarean delivery rate reductions of a specific and arbitrary magnitude, we need further attention to defining an evidence-based optimal target. This commentary summarizes current national and international cesarean delivery rate targets, discusses the challenges of identifying an evidence-based national cesarean delivery rate target, and explores future considerations for best defining a cesarean delivery rate target.

2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 266-270, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852278

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to evaluate whether cannabis use was associated with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Participants from nuMoM2b (Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-Be) enrolled from October 2010 through September 2013 with a PUQE (Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis) questionnaire and an available stored urine sample from the first study visit (median gestational age 12 weeks) were included. Cannabis exposure was ascertained by urine immunoassay for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH); positive results were confirmed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The primary outcome was moderate-to-severe nausea by the PUQE score. Overall, 9,250 participants were included, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.4-6.3%) had detectable urine THC-COOH. In adjusted analyses, higher THC-COOH levels were associated with greater odds of moderate-to-severe nausea (20.7% in the group with THC-COOH detected vs 15.5% in the group with THC-COOH not detected, adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2 for a 500 ng/mg Cr THC-COOH increment).


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Analgesics , Cannabis/adverse effects , Dronabinol/analysis , Female , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Humans , Infant , Nausea , Pregnancy , Substance Abuse Detection , Vomiting
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 153-162, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to estimate statewide prenatal substance exposure based on umbilical cord sampling. Our secondary objectives were to compare prevalence of prenatal substance exposure across urban, rural, and frontier regions, and to compare contemporary findings to those previously reported. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional prevalence study of prenatal substance exposure, as determined by umbilical cord positivity for 49 drugs and drug metabolites, through the use of qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All labor and delivery units in Utah (N=45) were invited to participate. Based on a 2010 study using similar methodology, we calculated that a sample size of at least 1,600 cords would have 90% power to detect 33% higher rate of umbilical cords testing positive for any substance. Deidentified umbilical cords were collected from consecutive deliveries at participating hospitals. Prevalence of prenatal substance exposure was estimated statewide and by rurality using weighted analysis. RESULTS: From November 2020 to November 2021, 1,748 cords (urban n=988, rural n=384, frontier n=376) were collected from 37 hospitals, representing 92% of hospitals that conduct 91% of births in the state. More than 99% of cords (n=1,739) yielded results. Statewide, 9.9% (95% CI 8.1-11.7%) were positive for at least one substance, most commonly opioids (7.0%, 95% CI 5.5-8.5%), followed by cannabinoid (11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC-COOH]) (2.5%, 95% CI 1.6-3.4%), amphetamines (0.9%, 95% CI 0.4-1.5), benzodiazepines (0.5%, 95% CI 0.1-0.9%), alcohol (0.4%, 95% CI 0.1-0.7%), and cocaine (0.1%, 95% CI 0-0.3%). Cord positivity was similar by rurality (urban=10.3%, 95% CI 8.3-12.3%, rural=7.1%, 95% CI 3.5-10.7%, frontier=9.2%, 95% CI 6.2-12.2%, P=.31) and did not differ by substance type. Compared with a previous study, prenatal exposure to any substance (6.8 vs 9.9%, P=.01), opioids (4.7 vs 7.0% vs 4.7%, P=.03), amphetamines (0.1 vs 0.9%, P=.01) and THC-COOH (0.5 vs 2.5%, P<.001) increased. CONCLUSION: Prenatal substance exposure was detected in nearly 1 in 10 births statewide.


Subject(s)
Dronabinol , Substance Abuse Detection , Amphetamines/analysis , Amphetamines/metabolism , Analgesics, Opioid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dronabinol/analysis , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Umbilical Cord/chemistry , Utah/epidemiology
4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(1): 83-86, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849460

ABSTRACT

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect up to 8% of pregnancies, but updated national trends are lacking. We performed a repeated cross-sectional analysis of individuals with singleton pregnancies who delivered at greater than 20 weeks of gestation, with data in the U.S. National Vital Statistics System from 1989 to 2020. Temporal trends in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, chronic hypertension, and eclampsia were characterized using joinpoint regression. Overall, 122,329,914 deliveries were included. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased from 2.79% in 1989 to 8.22% in 2020, representing an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 3.6% (95% CI 3.0-4.1%). Chronic hypertension increased (AAPC 4.1%, 95% CI 3.3-4.9%), whereas eclampsia decreased (AAPC -2.5%, 95% CI -4.0% to -1.0%). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with significant morbidity and mortality; the rising incidence is concerning.


Subject(s)
Eclampsia , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Pre-Eclampsia , Vital Statistics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Incidence , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709239

ABSTRACT

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(5): 939-940, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576360
10.
Prev Med ; 156: 106993, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150750

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between presence of recreational cannabis dispensaries and prevalence of cannabis-involved pregnancy hospitalizations in Colorado. This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy-related hospitalizations co-coded with cannabis diagnosis codes in the Colorado Hospital Association from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2018 (recreational cannabis began January 1, 2014). Our primary outcome was cannabis-involved pregnancy hospitalizations per 10 k live births per county. The primary exposure measure was county variation in the number of recreational dispensaries. We controlled for counties' baseline exposure to medical cannabis dispensaries and used Poisson regression to evaluate the association between exposure to recreational cannabis and hospitalizations. During the study period, cannabis-involved pregnancy hospitalizations increased from 429 to 1210. Mean hospitalizations per county (1.7 to 4.7) and per 10 k live births (13.2 to 55.7) increased. Overall, increasing recreational dispensaries were associated with increases in hospitalizations (1.02, CI: 1.00,1.04). When comparing counties with different densities of baseline medical cannabis market, low and high exposure counties had fewer hospitalizations than those counties with no exposure (low: IRR 0.97, CI: 0.96-0.99; high: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99). In Colorado, there was more than a two-fold increase in cannabis-involved pregnancy hospitalizations between 2011 and 2018. Counties with no baseline exposure to medical cannabis had a greater increase than other counties, suggesting the recreational market may influence cannabis use among pregnant individuals.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Medical Marijuana , Cannabis/adverse effects , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
11.
JAMA ; 327(8): 748-759, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129581

ABSTRACT

Importance: It remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically increases the risk of serious obstetric morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with serious maternal morbidity or mortality from common obstetric complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 14 104 pregnant and postpartum patients delivered between March 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020 (with final follow-up to February 11, 2021), at 17 US hospitals participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Gestational Research Assessments of COVID-19 (GRAVID) Study. All patients with SARS-CoV-2 were included and compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result who delivered on randomly selected dates over the same period. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on a positive nucleic acid or antigen test result. Secondary analyses further stratified those with SARS-CoV-2 infection by disease severity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of maternal death or serious morbidity related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, or infection other than SARS-CoV-2. The main secondary outcome was cesarean birth. Results: Of the 14 104 included patients (mean age, 29.7 years), 2352 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection and 11 752 did not have a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with the primary outcome (13.4% vs 9.2%; difference, 4.2% [95% CI, 2.8%-5.6%]; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.61]). All 5 maternal deaths were in the SARS-CoV-2 group. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not significantly associated with cesarean birth (34.7% vs 32.4%; aRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.11]). Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, moderate or higher COVID-19 severity (n = 586) was significantly associated with the primary outcome (26.1% vs 9.2%; difference, 16.9% [95% CI, 13.3%-20.4%]; aRR, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.73-2.46]) and the major secondary outcome of cesarean birth (45.4% vs 32.4%; difference, 12.8% [95% CI, 8.7%-16.8%]; aRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.07-1.28]), but mild or asymptomatic infection (n = 1766) was not significantly associated with the primary outcome (9.2% vs 9.2%; difference, 0% [95% CI, -1.4% to 1.4%]; aRR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.94-1.32]) or cesarean birth (31.2% vs 32.4%; difference, -1.4% [95% CI, -3.6% to 0.8%]; aRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.93-1.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant and postpartum individuals at 17 US hospitals, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an increased risk for a composite outcome of maternal mortality or serious morbidity from obstetric complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Postpartum Hemorrhage/mortality , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(1): 21-30, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between nicotine or cannabis metabolite presence in maternal urine and child neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of two parallel multicenter randomized controlled trials of treatment for hypothyroxinemia or subclinical hypothyroidism among pregnant individuals enrolled at 8-20 weeks of gestation. All maternal-child dyads with a maternal urine sample at enrollment and child neurodevelopmental testing were included (N=1,197). Exposure was urine samples positive for nicotine (cotinine) or cannabis 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC-COOH]) or both metabolites. Primary outcome was child IQ at 60 months. Secondary outcomes included cognitive, motor and language, attention, behavioral and social competency, and differential skills assessments at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. Quantile regression analysis was performed with confounder adjustment. RESULTS: Of 1,197 pregnant individuals, 99 (8.3%) had positive cotinine samples and 47 (3.9%) had positive THC-COOH samples; 33 (2.8%) were positive for both. Groups differed in self-reported race and ethnicity, education, marital status, insurance, and thyroid status. Median IQ was similar between cotinine-exposed and -unexposed children (90 vs 95, adjusted difference in medians -2.47, 95% CI -6.22 to 1.29) and THC-COOH-exposed and -unexposed children (89 vs 95, adjusted difference in medians -1.35, 95% CI -7.76 to 5.05). In secondary outcome analysis, children with THC-COOH exposure compared with those unexposed had higher attention scores at 48 months of age (57 vs 49, adjusted difference in medians 6.0, 95% CI 1.11-10.89). CONCLUSIONS: Neither prenatal nicotine nor cannabis exposure was associated with a difference in IQ. Cannabis exposure was associated with worse attention scores in early childhood. Longitudinal studies assessing associations between child neurodevelopmental outcomes and prenatal nicotine and cannabis exposure with a focus on timing and quantity of exposure are needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00388297.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Dronabinol/analogs & derivatives , Nicotine/urine , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Child, Preschool , Developmental Disabilities/chemically induced , Dronabinol/adverse effects , Dronabinol/urine , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nicotine/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States/epidemiology
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the actual excess costs of care for delivery admissions complicated by severe maternal morbidity (SMM) compared with uncomplicated deliveries. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of all deliveries between October 2015 and September 2018 at a single tertiary academic center. Pregnant individuals ≥ 20 weeks' gestation who delivered during a hospital admission (i.e., a "delivery admission") were included. The primary exposure was SMM, as defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria, CDC criteria excluding blood transfusion, or by validated hospital-defined criteria (intensive care unit admission or ≥ 4 units of blood products). Potential SMM events identified via administrative and blood bank data were reviewed to confirm SMM events had occurred. Primary outcome was total actual costs of delivery admission derived from time-based accounting and acquisition costs in the institutional Value Driven Outcomes database. Cost of delivery admissions with SMM events was compared with the cost of uncomplicated delivery using adjusted generalized linear models, with separate models for each of the SMM definitions. Relative cost differences are reported due to data restrictions. RESULTS: Of 12,367 eligible individuals, 12,361 had complete cost data. Two hundred and eighty individuals (2.3%) had confirmed SMM events meeting CDC criteria. CDC criteria excluding transfusion alone occurred in 1.0% (n = 121) and hospital-defined SMM in 0.6% (n = 76). In adjusted models, SMM events by CDC criteria were associated with a relative cost increase of 2.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.29-2.61) the cost of an uncomplicated delivery. SMM by CDC criteria excluding transfusion alone was associated with a relative increase of 3.26 (95% CI: 2.95-3.60) and hospital-defined SMM with a 4.19-fold (95% CI: 3.64-4.83) increase. Each additional CDC subcategory of SMM diagnoses conferred a relative cost increase of 1.60 (95% CI: 1.43-1.79). CONCLUSION: SMM is associated with between 2.5- and 4-fold higher cost than uncomplicated deliveries. KEY POINTS: · Severe maternal morbidity as defined by CDC criteria confers a 2.5-fold increase in delivery hospitalization costs.. · Intensive care unit admission or ≥ 4 units of blood products confer a fourfold increase in cost.. · Costs of maternal morbidity may motivate SMM review..

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients admitted to obstetric inpatient units throughout the United States as detected by universal screening. We sought to describe the relationship between obstetric inpatient asymptomatic infection rates and publicly available surrounding community infection rates. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which medical centers reported rates of positive SARS-CoV-2 testing in asymptomatic pregnant and immediate postpartum patients over a 1-3-month time span in 2020. Publicly reported SARS-CoV-2 case rates from the relevant county and state for each center were collected from the COVID Act Now dashboard and the COVID Tracking Project for correlation analysis. RESULTS: Data were collected from nine health centers, encompassing 18 hospitals. Participating health centers were located in Alabama, California, Illinois, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and Washington State. Each hospital had an active policy for universal SARS-CoV-2 testing on obstetric inpatient unit. A total of 10,147 SARS-CoV-2 tests were administered, of which 124 were positive (1.2%). Positivity rates varied by site, ranging from 0-3.2%. While SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were lower in asymptomatic obstetric inpatient groups than the surrounding communities, there was a positive correlation between positivity rates in obstetric inpatient units and their surrounding county (p=.003, r=.782) and state (p=.007, r=.708). CONCLUSIONS: Given the correlation between community and obstetric inpatient rates, the necessity of SARS-CoV-2 related healthcare resource utilization in obstetric inpatient units may be best-informed by surrounding community infection rates.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Marijuana (MJ) use is associated with adverse effects on fetal growth. We aimed to investigate the timing of suboptimal fetal growth onset in MJ-exposed pregnancies. In addition, we aimed to explore the relationship between MJ-exposure and both abnormal uterine artery (UtA) Doppler parameters and small for gestational age (SGA). STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort that enrolled nulliparous individuals delivering non-anomalous fetuses beyond 20 weeks' gestation. Marijuana exposure was ascertained by self-report or clinical urine toxicology testing. Ultrasound estimated fetal weights (EFWs) were assessed in participants at both 16w0d-21w6d and 22w0d-29w6d. EFWs and birth weight (BW) were converted to weight percentiles (wPCT). EFW and BW wPCTs were calculated using population-based standards. Additionally, a customized standard designed to be applicable to both EFWs and BWs within the same model was also used to allow for EFW to BW percentile trajectories. The primary outcome, longitudinal wPCT, was compared between individuals with and without MJ use in a linear mixed-effects regression model adjusting for tobacco. For modeling, wPCT was smoothed across gestational age; MJ was estimated as an intercept and linear difference in the slope of gestational age. UtA Doppler notching, resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) at 16w0d-21w6d were compared using t-test and χ2. SGA at delivery was also compared. RESULTS: Nine thousand one hundred and sixty-three individuals met inclusion criteria; 136 (1.5%) used MJ during pregnancy. Individuals who used MJ were more likely to be younger, identify as non-Hispanic Black, and have had less education. Fetuses exposed to MJ had lower wPCT beginning at 28 weeks using population-based and customized standards, when compared to those without exposure. UtA notching, PI, and RI were similar between groups. SGA was more frequent in neonates exposed to MJ using both population-based (22 vs. 9%, p<.001) and customized (25 vs. 14%, p<.001) curves. CONCLUSIONS: MJ-exposed fetuses were estimated to be smaller than unexposed fetuses starting at 28 weeks' gestation across both growth standards without a difference in UtA Doppler parameters.

18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(6): 593.e1-593.e9, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364845

ABSTRACT

Pregnant individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 have higher rates of intensive care unit admission, oxygen requirement, need for mechanical ventilation, and death than nonpregnant individuals. Increased COVID-19 disease severity may be associated with an increased risk of viremia and placental infection. Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection is also associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and preterm birth, which can be either placentally mediated or reflected in the placenta. Maternal viremia followed by placental infection may lead to maternal-fetal transmission (vertical), which affects 1% to 3% of exposed newborns. However, there is no agreed-upon or standard definition of placental infection. The National Institutes of Health/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development convened a group of experts to propose a working definition of placental infection to inform ongoing studies of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. Experts recommended that placental infection be defined using techniques that allow virus detection and localization in placental tissue by one or more of the following methods: in situ hybridization with antisense probe (detects replication) or a sense probe (detects viral messenger RNA) or immunohistochemistry to detect viral nucleocapsid or spike proteins. If the abovementioned methods are not possible, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection or quantification of viral RNA in placental homogenates, or electron microscopy are alternative approaches. A graded classification for the likelihood of placental infection as definitive, probable, possible, and unlikely was proposed. Manuscripts reporting placental infection should describe the sampling method (location and number of samples collected), method of preservation of tissue, and detection technique. Recommendations were made for the handling of the placenta, examination, and sampling and the use of validated reagents and sample protocols (included as appendices).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Consensus , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Microscopy, Electron , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
19.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 631-646, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353584

ABSTRACT

Care for pregnant patients with substance use disorder must be provided in a nonjudgmental manner with recognition of addiction as a chronic medical illness in order to establish a therapeutic relationship and improve outcomes. All pregnant patients should be screened for substance use during prenatal care. Screening can be accomplished through several validated screening tools. Patients who screen positive need to be evaluated and referred for treatment as appropriate. This article reviews specific adverse perinatal outcomes associated with the use of a variety of substances and provides guidance on exposure with continued breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Substance-Related Disorders , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(1): 124.e1-124.e8, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As early life interventions for congenital heart disease improve, more patients are living to adulthood and are considering pregnancy. Scoring and classification systems predict the maternal cardiovascular risk of pregnancy in the context of congenital heart disease, but these scoring systems do not assess the potential subsequent risks following pregnancy. Data on the long-term cardiac outcomes after pregnancy are unknown for most lesion types. This limits the ability of healthcare practitioners to thoroughly counsel patients who are considering pregnancy in the setting of congenital heart disease. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between pregnancy and the subsequent long-term cardiovascular health of individuals with congenital heart disease. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of individuals identifying as female who were receiving care in two adult congenital heart disease centers from 2014 to 2019. Patient data were abstracted longitudinally from a patient age of 15 years (or from the time of entry into the healthcare system) to the conclusion of the study, death, or exit from the healthcare system. The primary endpoint, a composite adverse cardiac outcome (death, stroke, heart failure, unanticipated cardiac surgery, or a requirement for a catheterized procedure), was compared between parous (at least one pregnancy >20 weeks' gestation) and nulliparous individuals. By accounting for differences in the follow-up, the effect of pregnancy was estimated based on the time to the composite adverse outcome in a proportional hazards regression model adjusted for the World Health Organization class, baseline cardiac medications, and number of previous sternotomies. Participants were also categorized according to their lesion type, including septal defects (ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, atrioventricular septal defects, or atrioventricular canal defects), right-sided valvular lesions, left-sided valvular lesions, complex cardiac anomalies, and aortopathies, to evaluate if there is a differential effect of pregnancy on the primary outcome when adjusting for lesion type in a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 711 individuals were eligible for inclusion; 209 were parous and 502 nulliparous. People were classified according to the World Health Organization classification system with 86 (12.3%) being classified as class I, 76 (10.9%) being classified as class II, 272 (38.9%) being classified as class II to III, 155 (22.1%) being classified as class III, and 26 (3.7%) being classified as class IV. Aortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve, dilated ascending aorta or aortic root, aortic regurgitation, and pulmonary insufficiency were more common in parous individuals, whereas dextro-transposition of the great arteries, Turner syndrome, hypoplastic right heart, left superior vena cava, and other cardiac diagnoses were more common in nulliparous individuals. In multivariable modeling, pregnancy was associated with the composite adverse cardiac outcome (36.4%% vs 26.1%%; hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.66). Parous individuals were more likely to have unanticipated cardiac surgery (28.2% vs 18.1%; P=.003). No other individual components of the primary outcome were statistically different between parous and nulliparous individuals in cross-sectional comparisons. The association between pregnancy and the primary outcome was similar in a sensitivity analysis that adjusted for cardiac lesion type (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.36). CONCLUSION: Among individuals with congenital heart disease, pregnancy was associated with an increase in subsequent long-term adverse cardiac outcomes. These data may inform counseling of individuals with congenital heart disease who are considering pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/epidemiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/mortality , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Utah/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL