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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients hospitalized for COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms months after discharge. Little is known abou t patients' personal experiences recovering from COVID-19 in the United States (US), where medically underserved populations are at particular risk of adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 hospitalization and barriers to and facilitators of recovery 1 year after hospital discharge in a predominantly Black American study population with high neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage. DESIGN: Qualitative study utilizing individual, semi-structured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 approximately 1 year after discharge home who were engaged in a COVID-19 longitudinal cohort study. APPROACH: The interview guide was developed and piloted by a multidisciplinary team. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and organized into discrete themes using qualitative content analysis with constant comparison techniques. KEY RESULTS: Of 24 participants, 17 (71%) self-identified as Black, and 13 (54%) resided in neighborhoods with the most severe neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage. One year after discharge, participants described persistent deficits in physical, cognitive, or psychological health that impacted their current lives. Repercussions included financial suffering and a loss of identity. Participants reported that clinicians often focused on physical health over cognitive and psychological health, an emphasis that posed a barrier to recovering holistically. Facilitators of recovery included robust financial or social support systems and personal agency in health maintenance. Spirituality and gratitude were common coping mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent health deficits after COVID-19 resulted in downstream consequences in participants' lives. Though participants received adequate care to address physical needs, many described persistent unmet cognitive and psychological needs. A more comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators for COVID-19 recovery, contextualized by specific healthcare and socioeconomic needs related to socioeconomic disadvantage, is needed to better inform intervention delivery to patients that experience long-term sequelae of COVID-19 hospitalization.

3.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(12): e0800, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313821

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a heterogenous disease. Biomarker-based approaches may identify patients at risk for severe disease, who may be more likely to benefit from specific therapies. Our objective was to identify and validate a plasma protein signature for severe COVID-19. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Two hospitals in the United States. PATIENTS: One hundred sixty-seven hospitalized adults with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured 713 plasma proteins in 167 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 using a high-throughput platform. We classified patients as nonsevere versus severe COVID-19, defined as the need for high-flow nasal cannula, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or death, at study entry and in 7-day intervals thereafter. We compared proteins measured at baseline between these two groups by logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, symptom duration, and comorbidities. We used lead proteins from dysregulated pathways as inputs for elastic net logistic regression to identify a parsimonious signature of severe disease and validated this signature in an external COVID-19 dataset. We tested whether the association between corticosteroid use and mortality varied by protein signature. One hundred ninety-four proteins were associated with severe COVID-19 at the time of hospital admission. Pathway analysis identified multiple pathways associated with inflammatory response and tissue repair programs. Elastic net logistic regression yielded a 14-protein signature that discriminated 90-day mortality in an external cohort with an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88-0.95). Classifying patients based on the predicted risk from the signature identified a heterogeneous response to treatment with corticosteroids (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Inpatients with COVID-19 express heterogeneous patterns of plasma proteins. We propose a 14-protein signature of disease severity that may have value in developing precision medicine approaches for COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 912880, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276495

ABSTRACT

Plasmalogens are plasma-borne antioxidant phospholipid species that provide protection as cellular lipid components during cellular oxidative stress. In this study we investigated plasma plasmalogen levels in human sepsis as well as in rodent models of infection. In humans, levels of multiple plasmenylethanolamine molecular species were decreased in septic patient plasma compared to control subject plasma as well as an age-aligned control subject cohort. Additionally, lysoplasmenylcholine levels were significantly decreased in septic patients compared to the control cohorts. In contrast, plasma diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine levels were elevated in septic patients. Lipid changes were also determined in rats subjected to cecal slurry sepsis. Plasma plasmenylcholine, plasmenylethanolamine, and lysoplasmenylcholine levels were decreased while diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine levels were increased in septic rats compared to control treated rats. Kidney levels of lysoplasmenylcholine as well as plasmenylethanolamine molecular species were decreased in septic rats. Interestingly, liver plasmenylcholine and plasmenylethanolamine levels were increased in septic rats. Since COVID-19 is associated with sepsis-like acute respiratory distress syndrome and oxidative stress, plasmalogen levels were also determined in a mouse model of COVID-19 (intranasal inoculation of K18 mice with SARS-CoV-2). 3 days following infection, lung infection was confirmed as well as cytokine expression in the lung. Multiple molecular species of lung plasmenylcholine and plasmenylethanolamine were decreased in infected mice. In contrast, the predominant lung phospholipid, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, was not decreased following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally total plasmenylcholine levels were decreased in the plasma of SARS-CoV-2 infected mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate the loss of plasmalogens during both sepsis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study also indicates plasma plasmalogens should be considered in future studies as biomarkers of infection and as prognostic indicators for sepsis and COVID-19 outcomes.

5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5145, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251577

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Diverse clinical presentations prompted numerous attempts to predict disease severity to improve care and patient outcomes. Equally important is understanding the mechanisms underlying such divergent disease outcomes. Multivariate modeling was used here to define the most distinctive features that separate COVID-19 from healthy controls and severe from moderate disease. Using discriminant analysis and binary logistic regression models we could distinguish between severe disease, moderate disease, and control with rates of correct classifications ranging from 71 to 100%. The distinction of severe and moderate disease was most reliant on the depletion of natural killer cells and activated class-switched memory B cells, increased frequency of neutrophils, and decreased expression of the activation marker HLA-DR on monocytes in patients with severe disease. An increased frequency of activated class-switched memory B cells and activated neutrophils was seen in moderate compared to severe disease and control. Our results suggest that natural killer cells, activated class-switched memory B cells, and activated neutrophils are important for protection against severe disease. We show that binary logistic regression was superior to discriminant analysis by attaining higher rates of correct classification based on immune profiles. We discuss the utility of these multivariate techniques in biomedical sciences, contrast their mathematical basis and limitations, and propose strategies to overcome such limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutrophils , Patient Acuity , HLA-DR Antigens , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Critical care explorations ; 4(12), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a heterogenous disease. Biomarker-based approaches may identify patients at risk for severe disease, who may be more likely to benefit from specific therapies. Our objective was to identify and validate a plasma protein signature for severe COVID-19. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Two hospitals in the United States. PATIENTS: One hundred sixty-seven hospitalized adults with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured 713 plasma proteins in 167 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 using a high-throughput platform. We classified patients as nonsevere versus severe COVID-19, defined as the need for high-flow nasal cannula, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or death, at study entry and in 7-day intervals thereafter. We compared proteins measured at baseline between these two groups by logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, symptom duration, and comorbidities. We used lead proteins from dysregulated pathways as inputs for elastic net logistic regression to identify a parsimonious signature of severe disease and validated this signature in an external COVID-19 dataset. We tested whether the association between corticosteroid use and mortality varied by protein signature. One hundred ninety-four proteins were associated with severe COVID-19 at the time of hospital admission. Pathway analysis identified multiple pathways associated with inflammatory response and tissue repair programs. Elastic net logistic regression yielded a 14-protein signature that discriminated 90-day mortality in an external cohort with an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88–0.95). Classifying patients based on the predicted risk from the signature identified a heterogeneous response to treatment with corticosteroids (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Inpatients with COVID-19 express heterogeneous patterns of plasma proteins. We propose a 14-protein signature of disease severity that may have value in developing precision medicine approaches for COVID-19 pneumonia.

7.
Chest ; 162(1): 256-264, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2019, the United States experienced a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). More than one-half of these patients required admission to an ICU. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the recent literature and expert opinions which inform the diagnosis and management of patients with critical illness with EVALI? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To synthesize information critical to pulmonary/critical care specialists in the care of patients with EVALI, this study examined data available from patients hospitalized with EVALI between August 2019 and January 2020; reviewed the clinical course and critical care experience with those patients admitted to the ICU; and compiled opinion of national experts. RESULTS: Of the 2,708 patients with confirmed or probable EVALI requiring hospitalization as of January 21, 2020, a total of 1,604 (59.2%) had data available on ICU admission; of these, 705 (44.0%) were admitted to the ICU and are included in this analysis. The majority of ICU patients required respiratory support (88.5%) and in severe cases required intubation (36.1%) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (6.7%). The majority (93.0%) of these ICU patients survived to discharge. Review of the clinical course and expert opinion provided insight into: imaging; considerations for bronchoscopy; medical treatment, including use of empiric antibiotics, antiviral agents, and corticosteroids; respiratory support, including considerations for intubation, positioning maneuvers, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; and patient outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Review of the clinical course of patients with EVALI requiring ICU admission and compilation of expert opinion provided critical insight into pulmonary/critical care-specific considerations for this patient population. Because a large proportion of patients hospitalized with EVALI required ICU admission, it is important to remain prepared to care for patients with EVALI.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury , Vaping , Critical Care , Humans , Lung , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects
10.
Nat Med ; 28(6): 1141-1148, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900513

ABSTRACT

Research and practice in critical care medicine have long been defined by syndromes, which, despite being clinically recognizable entities, are, in fact, loose amalgams of heterogeneous states that may respond differently to therapy. Mounting translational evidence-supported by research on respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-suggests that the current syndrome-based framework of critical illness should be reconsidered. Here we discuss recent findings from basic science and clinical research in critical care and explore how these might inform a new conceptual model of critical illness. De-emphasizing syndromes, we focus on the underlying biological changes that underpin critical illness states and that may be amenable to treatment. We hypothesize that such an approach will accelerate critical care research, leading to a richer understanding of the pathobiology of critical illness and of the key determinants of patient outcomes. This, in turn, will support the design of more effective clinical trials and inform a more precise and more effective practice at the bedside.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Syndrome
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060664, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879135

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic brought an urgent need to discover novel effective therapeutics for patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19. The Investigation of Serial studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging And moLecular Analysis (ISPY COVID-19 trial) was designed and implemented in early 2020 to evaluate investigational agents rapidly and simultaneously on a phase 2 adaptive platform. This manuscript outlines the design, rationale, implementation and challenges of the ISPY COVID-19 trial during the first phase of trial activity from April 2020 until December 2021. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The ISPY COVID-19 Trial is a multicentre open-label phase 2 platform trial in the USA designed to evaluate therapeutics that may have a large effect on improving outcomes from severe COVID-19. The ISPY COVID-19 Trial network includes academic and community hospitals with significant geographical diversity across the country. Enrolled patients are randomised to receive one of up to four investigational agents or a control and are evaluated for a family of two primary outcomes-time to recovery and mortality. The statistical design uses a Bayesian model with 'stopping' and 'graduation' criteria designed to efficiently discard ineffective therapies and graduate promising agents for definitive efficacy trials. Each investigational agent arm enrols to a maximum of 125 patients per arm and is compared with concurrent controls. As of December 2021, 11 investigational agent arms had been activated, and 8 arms were complete. Enrolment and adaptation of the trial design are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: ISPY COVID-19 operates under a central institutional review board via Wake Forest School of Medicine IRB00066805. Data generated from this trial will be reported in peer-reviewed medical journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04488081.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834988, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817941

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Thromboembolic events constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Severe COVID-19 has been associated with hyperinflammation and pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Platelets are important mediators and sensors of inflammation and are directly affected by cardiovascular stressors. In this report, we found that platelets from severely ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients exhibited higher basal levels of activation measured by P-selectin surface expression and had poor functional reserve upon in vitro stimulation. To investigate this question in more detail, we developed an assay to assess the capacity of plasma from COVID-19 patients to activate platelets from healthy donors. Platelet activation was a common feature of plasma from COVID-19 patients and correlated with key measures of clinical outcome including kidney and liver injury, and APACHEIII scores. Further, we identified ferritin as a pivotal clinical marker associated with platelet hyperactivation. The COVID-19 plasma-mediated effect on control platelets was highest for patients that subsequently developed inpatient thrombotic events. Proteomic analysis of plasma from COVID-19 patients identified key mediators of inflammation and cardiovascular disease that positively correlated with in vitro platelet activation. Mechanistically, blocking the signaling of the FcγRIIa-Syk and C5a-C5aR pathways on platelets, using antibody-mediated neutralization, IgG depletion or the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, reversed this hyperactivity driven by COVID-19 plasma and prevented platelet aggregation in endothelial microfluidic chamber conditions. These data identified these potentially actionable pathways as central for platelet activation and/or vascular complications and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, we reveal a key role of platelet-mediated immunothrombosis in COVID-19 and identify distinct, clinically relevant, targetable signaling pathways that mediate this effect.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C5a/metabolism , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Adult , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Morpholines/pharmacology , Platelet Activation , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Elife ; 112022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742931

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk of severe COVID-19 increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with lymphopenia, but not with higher burden of SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether effects of age and sex on abundance of specific lymphoid subsets explain these correlations. Methods: Multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between abundance of specific blood lymphoid cell types, age, sex, requirement for hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, and elevation of blood markers of systemic inflammation, in adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 (n = 40), treated for COVID-19 as outpatients (n = 51), and in uninfected controls (n = 86), as well as in children with COVID-19 (n = 19), recovering from COVID-19 (n = 14), MIS-C (n = 11), recovering from MIS-C (n = 7), and pediatric controls (n = 17). Results: This observational study found that the abundance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) decreases more than 7-fold over the human lifespan - T cell subsets decrease less than 2-fold - and is lower in males than in females. After accounting for effects of age and sex, ILCs, but not T cells, were lower in adults hospitalized with COVID-19, independent of lymphopenia. Among SARS-CoV-2-infected adults, the abundance of ILCs, but not of T cells, correlated inversely with odds and duration of hospitalization, and with severity of inflammation. ILCs were also uniquely decreased in pediatric COVID-19 and the numbers of these cells did not recover during follow-up. In contrast, children with MIS-C had depletion of both ILCs and T cells, and both cell types increased during follow-up. In both pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C, ILC abundance correlated inversely with inflammation. Blood ILC mRNA and phenotype tracked closely with ILCs from lung. Importantly, blood ILCs produced amphiregulin, a protein implicated in disease tolerance and tissue homeostasis. Among controls, the percentage of ILCs that produced amphiregulin was higher in females than in males, and people hospitalized with COVID-19 had a lower percentage of ILCs that produced amphiregulin than did controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that, by promoting disease tolerance, homeostatic ILCs decrease morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that lower ILC abundance contributes to increased COVID-19 severity with age and in males. Funding: This work was supported in part by the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness and NIH grants R37AI147868, R01AI148784, F30HD100110, 5K08HL143183.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Amphiregulin , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
14.
J Infect Dis ; 226(3): 463-473, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672211

ABSTRACT

Some risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been identified, including age, race, and obesity. However, 20%-50% of severe cases occur in the absence of these factors. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that infects about 50% of all individuals worldwide and is among the most significant nongenetic determinants of immune system. We hypothesized that latent CMV infection might influence the severity of COVID-19. Our analyses demonstrate that CMV seropositivity is associated with more than twice the risk of hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Immune profiling of blood and CMV DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients for whom respiratory tract samples were available revealed altered T-cell activation profiles in absence of extensive CMV replication in the upper respiratory tract. These data suggest a potential role for CMV-driven immune perturbations in affecting the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may have implications for the discrepancies in COVID-19 severity between different human populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Latent Infection , Cytomegalovirus , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591538

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntibody-based strategies for COVID-19 have shown promise in prevention and treatment of early disease. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been widely used but results from randomized trials supporting its benefit in hospitalized patients with pneumonia are limited. Here, we assess the efficacy of CCP in severely ill, hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia.MethodsWe performed a randomized control trial (PennCCP2), with 80 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing up to 2 units of locally sourced CCP plus standard care versus standard care alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was comparison of a clinical severity score. Key secondary outcomes include 14- and 28-day mortality, 14- and 28-day maximum 8-point WHO ordinal score (WHO8) score, duration of supplemental oxygenation or mechanical ventilation, respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.ResultsEighty hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled at median day 6 of symptoms and day 1 of hospitalization; 60% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seronegative. Participants had a median of 3 comorbidities, including risk factors for severe COVID-19 and immunosuppression. CCP treatment was safe and conferred significant benefit by clinical severity score (median [MED] and interquartile range [IQR] 10 [5.5-30] vs. 7 [2.75-12.25], P = 0.037) and 28-day mortality (n = 10, 26% vs. n = 2, 5%; P = 0.013). All other prespecified outcome measures showed weak evidence toward benefit of CCP.ConclusionTwo units of locally sourced CCP administered early in hospitalization to majority seronegative participants conferred a significant benefit in clinical severity score and 28-day mortality. Results suggest CCP may benefit select populations, especially those with comorbidities who are treated early.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04397757.FundingUniversity of Pennsylvania.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunosuppression Therapy , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(1): 107-120, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591647

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Understanding of the complex pathways involved in lung injury pathogenesis, resolution, and repair has grown considerably in recent decades. Nevertheless, to date, only therapies targeting ventilation-induced lung injury have consistently proven beneficial, and despite these gains, ARDS morbidity and mortality remain high. Many candidate therapies with promise in preclinical studies have been ineffective in human trials, probably at least in part due to clinical and biological heterogeneity that modifies treatment responsiveness in human ARDS. A precision medicine approach to ARDS seeks to better account for this heterogeneity by matching therapies to subgroups of patients that are anticipated to be most likely to benefit, which initially might be identified in part by assessing for heterogeneity of treatment effect in clinical trials. In October 2019, the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop of multidisciplinary experts to explore research opportunities and challenges for accelerating precision medicine in ARDS. Topics of discussion included the rationale and challenges for a precision medicine approach in ARDS, the roles of preclinical ARDS models in precision medicine, essential features of cohort studies to advance precision medicine, and novel approaches to clinical trials to support development and validation of a precision medicine strategy. In this Position Paper, we summarise workshop discussions, recommendations, and unresolved questions for advancing precision medicine in ARDS. Although the workshop took place before the COVID-19 pandemic began, the pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for precision therapies for ARDS as the global scientific community grapples with many of the key concepts, innovations, and challenges discussed at this workshop.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(616): eabj1008, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518118

ABSTRACT

Red blood cells (RBCs) are essential for aerobic respiration through delivery of oxygen to distant tissues. However, RBCs are currently considered immunologically inert, and few, if any, secondary functions of RBCs have been identified. Here, we showed that RBCs serve as critical immune sensors through surface expression of the nucleic acid­sensing Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Mammalian RBCs expressed TLR9 on their surface and bound CpG-containing DNA derived from bacteria, plasmodia, and mitochondria. RBC-bound mitochondrial DNA was increased during human and murine sepsis and pneumonia. In vivo, CpG-carrying RBCs drove accelerated erythrophagocytosis and innate immune activation characterized by increased interferon signaling. Erythroid-specific deletion of TLR9 abrogated erythrophagocytosis and decreased local and systemic cytokine production during CpG-induced inflammation and polymicrobial sepsis. Thus, detection and capture of nucleic acid by TLR9-expressing RBCs regulated red cell clearance and inflammatory cytokine production, demonstrating that RBCs function as immune sentinels during pathologic states. Consistent with these findings, RBC-bound mitochondrial DNA was elevated in individuals with viral pneumonia and sepsis secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with anemia and severity of disease. These findings uncover a previously unappreciated role of RBCs as critical players in inflammation distinct from their function in gas transport.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Immunity, Innate , Toll-Like Receptor 9 , Animals , DNA , Erythrocytes , Humans , Mice
18.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(11): e0578, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515114

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has to date granted approval or emergency use authorization to three vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and coronavirus disease 2019. In clinical trials and real-use observational studies, the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine, as well as the Moderna mRNA-1273 messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine, have demonstrated high efficacy and few adverse events. CASE SUMMARY: A 20-year-old male college student in good health developed tinnitus and hematuria shortly after vaccination and progressed swiftly to a syndrome of: systemic inflammation; acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis; acute, bilateral, complete sensorineural hearing loss; radiographic evidence of acute multifocal ischemic strokes; pericardial effusion complicated by tamponade physiology requiring pericardial evacuation; pleural effusions requiring evacuation; and systemic capillary leak. An extensive clinical and research investigation, including cytokine analysis, whole blood cytometry by time of flight, and whole exome sequencing, did not reveal a definitive explanatory mechanism. CONCLUSION: While the overall safety profile of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine remains excellent for the general population, rare serious events have been reported. In this report, we describe a case of multisystem inflammation and organ dysfunction of unknown mechanism beginning shortly after administration of the first dose of BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine in a previously healthy recipient.

19.
Crit Care Clin ; 37(4): 817-834, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414516

ABSTRACT

Clinical risk factors alone fail to fully explain acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk or ARDS death, suggesting that individual risk factors contribute. The goals of genomic ARDS studies include better mechanistic understanding, identifying dysregulated pathways that may be amenable to pharmacologic targeting, using genomic causal inference techniques to find measurable traits with meaning, and deconvoluting ARDS heterogeneity by proving reproducible subpopulations that may share a unique biology. This article discusses the latest advances in ARDS genomics, provides historical perspective, and highlights some of the ways that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is accelerating genomic ARDS research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410404

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/immunology
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