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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505033

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, was designed and successfully applied for COVID-19 disease treatment in China, while the mechanism is still not clear. Methods: To evaluate the protective effect of XFBD on immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice, XFBD was orally administrated, the body weight was measured, and the immune organ index was calculated. HE staining was performed to analyze the pathological structures of the liver, spleen, and thymus. The levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin in the serum and spleen were evaluated by ELISA and RT-PCR. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated, and LPS-stimulated cell proliferation and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: XFBD significantly suppressed body weight loss and increased the indices of spleen and thymus. The pathological alteration was much improved after XFBD administration. The reductions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgG, and IgM levels in serum and IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 expressions in the spleen were all significantly alleviated by XFBD. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS was further enhanced after treatment with XFBD. The reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in CY-treated mice was also highly increased in XFBD groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that XFBD played a crucial role in protection against immunosuppression in CY-treated mice and could be a potential candidate for immune modification and therapy.

2.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487711

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been successfully applied worldwide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this success remain unclear. Hence, the aim of this review is to combine pharmacological assays based on the theory of TCM in order to elucidate the potential signaling pathways, targets, active compounds, and formulas of herbs that are involved in the TCM treatment of COVID-19, which exhibits combatting viral infections, immune regulation, and amelioration of lung injury and fibrosis. Extensive reports on target screening are elucidated using virtual prediction via docking analysis or network pharmacology based on existing data. The results of these reports indicate that an intricate regulatory mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Therefore, more pharmacological research on the natural herbs used in TCM should be conducted in order to determine the association between TCM and COVID-19 and account for the observed therapeutic effects of TCM against COVID-19.

3.
Expert Syst Appl ; 187: 115797, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401466

ABSTRACT

Facing the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have implemented a wide range of policies to contain the spread of the virus. During the pandemic, large amounts of COVID-19-related tweets emerge every day. Real-time processing of daily tweets may offer insights for monitoring public opinion about intervention measures implemented. In this work, lockdown policy in New York State has been set as a target of public opinion research. This task includes two stages, stance detection and opinion monitoring. For the stance detection stage, we explored several combinations of different text representations and classification algorithms, finding that the combination of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) with Global Vectors for Word Representation (GloVe) outperforms others. Due to the shortage of labeled data, we adopted the data distillation method for the training data augmentation. The augmentation of the training data allows to improve the performance of the model with a very small amount of manually-labeled data. After applying the distillation method, the accuracy of the model has been significantly improved. Utilizing the enhanced model, automatically classified tweets are analyzed over time to monitor the public opinion. By exploring the tweets in New York from January 22nd until September 30th, 2020, we show the correlation of public opinion with COVID-19 cases and mortality data, and the effect of government responses on the opinion shift. These results demonstrate the capability of the presented method to effectively and efficiently monitor public opinion during a pandemic.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1509-1514, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324711

ABSTRACT

Viral pneumonia is caused by a spreading of lung infection caused by respiratory viruses. Some virus infections were found to be highly aggressive, leading to lung inflammation and severe damage in respiratory system with high fatality rate. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic drugs in the clinic. The common clinical symptoms of viral pneumonias include fever, rhinitis, runny nose, nonproductive cough, fatigue, myalgias and headaches after the immune system being tricked by driving cytokines and overactivated immune response induced by cytokine storms. Patients with severe symptoms could get persistent high fever, dysfunctional breathing, consciousness disorders and even respiratory failure, post-inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, multi-organ damages, shock and so on. Most clinical treatments are used to inhibit virus replication, relieve symptoms, inhibit excessive inflammatory response, regulate immune balance and protect organs. Both applied and basic research demonstrate that Chinese patent medicine has certain anti-viral effects, effectively inhibiting viral pneumonia transiting from mild to severe, rapid relieving of patient symptoms because of their multi-component and multi-target integrated roles. This review has summarized the reports on the treatment of viral pneumonia. Based on the pathogenic characteristics of viral pneumonia, this paper summarizes the diverse roles of the marketed Chinese patent medicine, such as their effects in inhibiting the progress of viral replication and overactivated inflammatory response, regulating immune balance, attenuating pulmonary fibrosis and so forth. Our paper summarizes the advantages of Chinese patient medicine in the treatment of viral pneumonia, based on which improvements of clinical therapy are expected to be made soon.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral , Cough , Fever , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs
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