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World Development ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-696276


The COVID-19 pandemic created a critical need for citizen volunteers working with government to protect public health and to augment overwhelmed public services Our research examines the crucial role of community volunteers and their effective deployment during a crisis We analyze individual and collaborative service activities based on usage data from 85,699 COVID-19 volunteers gathered through China’s leading digital volunteering platform, as well as a survey conducted among a sample of 2,270 of these COVID-19 volunteers using the platform and interviews with 14 civil society leaders in charge of coordinating service activities Several results emerge: the value of collaboration among local citizens, civil society including community-based groups, and regional government to fill gaps in public services;the key role of experienced local volunteers, who rapidly shifted to COVID-19 from other causes as the pandemic peaked;and an example of state-led coproduction based on long-term relationships Our analysis provides insight into the role of volunteerism and coproduction in China's response to the pandemic, laying groundwork for future research The findings can help support the response to COVID-19 and future crises by more effectively leveraging human capital and technology in community service delivery

Sleep Med ; 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457298


BACKGROUND: An outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been ongoing in China since January 2020. The threat of infection affects the work and life of most of the population and may also damage sleep. This study aims to examine the subjective sleep status and mental health of the population during the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHOD: The data were collected through an online questionnaire with a sample of 5461 individuals in China from February 5, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Participants were divided into four groups based on their degree of threat from COVID-19: Group 1 was most closely associated with COVID-19, including inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19, first-line hospital workers and first-line management staff; Group 2 included outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients who developed a fever and visited the hospital; Group 3 included people related to Group 1 or 2, such as their colleagues, relatives, friends and rescuers; and Group 4 was the farthest removed from contact with COVID-19, covering the general public affected by COVID-19 prevention strategies. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) were used. RESULTS: Threat degree of COVID-19 (groups) had significant correlations with insomnia, depression, anxiety, and stress (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Age, gender, and area (Hubei province or other provinces) had significant correlations with insomnia (p < 0.01). A total of 1380 (24.46%) participants were suspected of having major depression based on the PHQ-9. Additionally, 1042 (18.47%) participants were suspected of having generalized anxiety disorder based on the GAD-7. A total of 892 (15.8%) of the participants had Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) according to the ASDS. The prevalence of clinical insomnia during the outbreak was 20.05% (1131) according to the ISI. The factors of satisfaction with the current sleep pattern and how perceptible the symptoms of the current sleep pattern are to other people (p < 0.05) and the middle (difficulty staying asleep) and terminal (waking up too early) (p < 0.01) factors of the ISI were significantly different across groups. A total of 1129 (20.01%) participants spent more than one hour awake in bed. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that insomnia is more severe in people who are female, young, living in the epicenter and experiencing a high degree of threat from COVID-19. As prevention and treatment efforts continue with regard to COVID-19, the general public has developed poor sleep hygiene habits, which deserve attention.

J Infect ; 81(1): e51-e60, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71722


IMPORTANCE: An ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has exhibited significant threats around the world. We found a significant decrease of T lymphocyte subsets and an increase of inflammatory cytokines of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-center observational study of in-hospital adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Hubei Provincial Hospital of traditional Chinese and Western medicine (Wuhan, China) by Mar 1, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory information, especially T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory cytokines were reported. For patients who died or discharge from hospital, the associations of T lymphocyte subsets on admission were evaluated by univariate logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), warning values to predict in-hospital death were assessed by Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients were enrolled in our study from Dec 26, 2019 to Mar 1, 2020, of whom 145 were survivors (discharge = 117) or non-survivors (in-hospital death ==28). All patients exhibited a significant drop of T lymphocyte subsets counts with remarkably increasing concentrations of SAA, CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 compared to normal values. The median concentrations of SAA and CRP in critically-ill patients were nearly 4- and 10-fold than those of mild-ill patients, respectively. As the severity of COVID-19 getting worse, the counts of T lymphocyte drop lower.28 patients died in hospital, the median lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell and B-cell were significantly lower than other patients. Lower counts (/uL) of T lymphocyte subsets lymphocyte (<500), CD3+T-cell (<200), CD4+ T-cell (<100), CD8+ T-cell (<100) and B-cell (<50) were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death of CIVID-19. The warning values to predict in-hospital death of lymphocyte, CD3+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell, and B-cell were 559, 235, 104, 85 and 82, respectively. CONCLUSION: We find a significant decrease of T lymphocyte subset is positively correlated with in-hospital death and severity of illness. The decreased levels of T lymphocyte subsets reported in our study were similar with SARS but not common among other virus infection, which may be possible biomarkers for early diagnosis of COVID-19. Our findings may shed light on early warning of high risks of mortality and help early intervention and treatment of COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocyte Subsets