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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885401

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to analyse, on a population level, the year-long decline in cancer diagnoses in the region of Lombardy (Italy), and to characterise the tumours with the greatest reduction in diagnosis by patient age, sex and tumour stage at diagnosis. We used the health care utilisation databases of the Lombardy region to identify cancer patients' characteristics (eg, sex, age) and cancer-related information (eg, cancer site, stage at diagnosis). The frequency of new cancer diagnoses in 2019 and 2020 were compared in terms of percentage differences in undiagnosed cases. We observed two peaks in the decline in cancer diagnoses: March to May 2020 (-37%) and October to December 2020 (-19%). The decline persisted over the course of 2020 and was higher in males and patients aged 74+. Diagnoses of all four common cancers analysed (female breast, lung, colorectal and prostate) remained below pre-pandemic levels. For breast and colorectal cancers, the decline in diagnoses was high in the age groups targeted by population-based screening programmes. We observed a reduction in localised stage cancer diagnoses for all four cancers. Our data confirm that timely monitoring of cancer diagnoses and interventions to prevent disruption of routine diagnostic services are needed to mitigate the impact of emergencies on cancer patients.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 196(3): 548-558, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467542

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by lymphoid malignancies (LM) are frequently immune-compromised, suffering increased mortality from COVID-19. This prospective study evaluated serological and T-cell responses after complete mRNA vaccination in 263 patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, B- and T-cell lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Results were compared with those of 167 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Overall, patient seroconversion rate was 64·6%: serological response was lower in those receiving anti-cancer treatments in the 12 months before vaccination: 55% vs 81·9% (P < 0·001). Anti-CD20 antibody plus chemotherapy treatment was associated with the lowest seroconversion rate: 17·6% vs. 71·2% (P < 0·001). In the multivariate analysis conducted in the subgroup of patients on active treatment, independent predictors for seroconversion were: anti-CD20 treatment (P < 0·001), aggressive B-cell lymphoma diagnosis (P = 0·002), and immunoglobulin M levels <40 mg/dl (P = 0·030). The T-cell response was evaluated in 99 patients and detected in 85 of them (86%). Of note, 74% of seronegative patients had a T-cell response, but both cellular and humoral responses were absent in 13·1% of cases. Our findings raise some concerns about the protection that patients with LM, particularly those receiving anti-CD20 antibodies, may gain from vaccination. These patients should strictly maintain all the protective measures.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , /immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion
4.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270072

ABSTRACT

The clinical presentation of COVID-19 is extremely heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic to severely ill patients. Thus, host genetic factors may be involved in determining disease presentation and progression. Given that carriers of single cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing variants of the CFTR gene-CF-carriers-are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections, our aim was to determine their likelihood of undergoing severe COVID-19. We implemented a cohort study of 874 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19, during the first pandemic wave in Italy. Whole exome sequencing was performed and validated CF-causing variants were identified. Forty subjects (16 females and 24 males) were found to be CF-carriers. Among mechanically ventilated patients, CF-carriers were more represented (8.7%) and they were significantly (p < 0.05) younger (mean age 51 years) compared to noncarriers (mean age 61.42 years). Furthermore, in the whole cohort, the age of male CF-carriers was lower, compared to noncarriers (p < 0.05). CF-carriers had a relative risk of presenting an abnormal inflammatory response (CRP ≥ 20 mg/dL) of 1.69 (p < 0.05) and their hazard ratio of death at day 14 was 3.10 (p < 0.05) in a multivariate regression model, adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities. In conclusion, CF-carriers are more susceptible to the severe form of COVID-19, showing also higher risk of 14-day death.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 135: 62-65, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605486

ABSTRACT

While confirmed cases of the deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have exceeded 4.7 million globally, scientists are pushing forward with efforts to develop vaccines and treatments in an attempt to slow the pandemic and lessen the disease's damage. Although no proven effective therapies for treating patients with COVID-19 or for managing their complications currently exist, the rapidly expanding knowledge regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and its interplay with hosts provides a significant number of potential drug targets and the potential to repurpose drugs already tested in other diseases. Herein, we report the biological rationale of immune-activating drugs and a brief summary of literature data on the potential therapeutic value of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been recently tested beyond cancer treatment for their potential to restore cellular immunocompetence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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