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medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.06.01.22275858


Introduction Individuals with a prior severe acute respiratory corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a moderate to high degree of protection against reinfection, though seemingly less so when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 started to circulate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, that is, in individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, during periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants. Methods A nationwide cohort study design including all individuals with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were alive and residing in Denmark between 1 January 2020 and 31 January 2022 were used. Using Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on SARS-CoV-2 infections, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, age, sex, comorbidity, staying at hospital and region of affiliation. The study population included were individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Crude and adjusted estimates of VE against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson and Cox regression models, respectively. The VE estimates were calculated separately for three periods with different dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), or Omicron (B.1.1.529)) and by time since vaccination using unvaccinated as the reference. Findings The study population comprised of 209,814 individuals infected before or during the Alpha period, 292,978 before or during the Delta period and 245,530 before or during the Omicron period. Of these, 40,281 individuals had completed their primary vaccination series during the Alpha period (19.2%), 190,026 during the Delta period (64.9%) and 158,563 during the Omicron period (64.6%). VE against reinfection following any COVID-19 vaccine type administered in Denmark, peaked at 85% (95% CI: 37% to 97%) at 104 days or more after vaccination during the Alpha period, 88% (95% CI: 81% to 92%) 14-43 days after vaccination during the Delta period and 60% (95% CI: 58% to 62%) 14-43 days after vaccination during the Omicron period. Waning immunity was observed, and was most pronounced during the Omicron period. Interpretation This study shows that, in previously infected individuals, completing a primary vaccination series was associated with a significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection compared with no vaccination for all three variant periods. Even though vaccination seems to protect to a lesser degree against reinfection with the Omicron variant, these findings are of public health relevance as they show that previously infected individuals still benefit from COVID-19 vaccination in all three variant periods.

COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
arxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2112.11298v1


Antigen test kits have been used extensively as a screening tool during the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). While it is generally expected that taking samples for analysis with PCR testing gives more reliable results than using antigen test kits, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the two protocols in the field have not yet been estimated without assuming that the PCR test constitutes a gold standard. We use latent class models to estimate the in situ performance of both PCR and antigen testing, using data from the Danish national registries. The results are based on 240,000 paired tests results sub-selected from the 55 million test results that were obtained in Denmark during the period from February 2021 until June 2021. We found that the specificity of both tests is very high in our data sample (>99.7%), while the sensitivity of PCR sampling was estimated to be 95.7% (95% CI: 92.8-98.4%) and that of the antigen test kits used in Denmark over the study period was estimated at 53.8% (95% CI: 49.8-57.9%). Our findings can be used as supplementary information for consideration when implementing serial testing strategies that employ a confirmatory PCR sample following a positive result from an antigen test kit, such as the policy used in Denmark. We note that while this strategy reduces the number of false positives associated with antigen test screening, it also increases the false negatives. We demonstrate that the balance of trading false positives for false negatives only favours the use of serial testing when the expected true prevalence is low. Our results contain substantial uncertainty in the estimates for sensitivity due to the relatively small number of positive test results over this period: validation of our findings in a population with higher prevalence would therefore be highly relevant for future work.