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biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.05.08.491108


SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations and represent an antigenic shift resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters result in potent plasma neutralizing activity against Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination-only, induce neutralizing activity in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1 and BA.2 receptor-binding domains whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity. While most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant antibody, that is unaffected by any Omicron lineage spike mutations and is a strong candidate for clinical development.

Breakthrough Pain
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.03.09.434607


VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 are dual action monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 were derived from a parent antibody (S309) isolated from memory B cells of a 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) survivor. Both mAbs contain an LS mutation in the Fc region to prolong serum half-life and potentially enhance distribution to the respiratory mucosa. In addition, VIR-7832 encodes an Fc GAALIE mutation that has been shown previously to evoke CD8+ T-cells in the context of an in vivo viral respiratory infection. VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 potently neutralize live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in vitro as well as pseudotyped viruses encoding spike protein from the B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 variants. In addition, they retain activity against monoclonal antibody resistance mutations that confer reduced susceptibility to currently authorized mAbs. The VIR-7831/VIR-7832 epitope does not overlap with mutational sites in the current variants of concern and continues to be highly conserved among circulating sequences consistent with the high barrier to resistance observed in vitro. Furthermore, both mAbs can recruit effector mechanisms in vitro that may contribute to clinical efficacy via elimination of infected host cells. In vitro studies with these mAbs demonstrated no enhancement of infection. In a Syrian Golden hamster proof-of concept concept wildtype SARS-CoV-2 infection model, animals treated with VIR-7831 had less weight loss, and significantly decreased total viral load and infectious virus levels in the lung compared to a control mAb. Taken together, these data indicate that VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 are promising new agents in the fight against COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19 , Weight Loss
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.11.245696


Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is an enveloped pathogen of the family Coronaviridae that spreads worldwide and causes up to 10% of all annual respiratory diseases. HCoV-NL63 is typically associated with mild upper respiratory symptoms in children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. It has also been shown to cause severe lower respiratory illness. NL63 shares ACE2 as a receptor for viral entry with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Here we present the in situ structure of HCoV-NL63 spike (S) trimer at 3.4-Å resolution by single-particle cryo-EM imaging of vitrified virions without chemical fixative. It is structurally homologous to that obtained previously from the biochemically purified ectodomain of HCoV-NL63 S trimer, which displays a 3-fold symmetric trimer in a single conformation. In addition to previously proposed and observed glycosylation sites, our map shows density at other amino acid positions as well as differences in glycan structures. The domain arrangement within a protomer is strikingly different from that of the SARS-CoV-2 S and may explain their different requirements for activating binding to the receptor. This structure provides the basis for future studies of spike proteins with receptors, antibodies, or drugs, in the native state of the coronavirus particles.