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1.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1247-1259, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315874

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, 1557 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled between October 30, 2020, and June 23, 2021, from 105 sites in 8 countries and followed up for 90 days (final follow-up date: July 26, 2021). Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either open-label aspirin (n = 565), a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 455), or no antiplatelet therapy (control; n = 529). Interventions were continued in the hospital for a maximum of 14 days and were in addition to anticoagulation thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based respiratory or cardiovascular organ support) within 21 days, ranging from -1 for any death in hospital (censored at 90 days) to 22 for survivors with no organ support. There were 13 secondary outcomes, including survival to discharge and major bleeding to 14 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. Efficacy was defined as greater than 99% posterior probability of an OR greater than 1. Futility was defined as greater than 95% posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 vs control. Intervention equivalence was defined as greater than 90% probability that the OR (compared with each other) was between 1/1.2 and 1.2 for 2 noncontrol interventions. Results: The aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor groups met the predefined criteria for equivalence at an adaptive analysis and were statistically pooled for further analysis. Enrollment was discontinued after the prespecified criterion for futility was met for the pooled antiplatelet group compared with control. Among the 1557 critically ill patients randomized, 8 patients withdrew consent and 1549 completed the trial (median age, 57 years; 521 [33.6%] female). The median for organ support-free days was 7 (IQR, -1 to 16) in both the antiplatelet and control groups (median-adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.86-1.23]; 95.7% posterior probability of futility). The proportions of patients surviving to hospital discharge were 71.5% (723/1011) and 67.9% (354/521) in the antiplatelet and control groups, respectively (median-adjusted OR, 1.27 [95% CrI, 0.99-1.62]; adjusted absolute difference, 5% [95% CrI, -0.2% to 9.5%]; 97% posterior probability of efficacy). Among survivors, the median for organ support-free days was 14 in both groups. Major bleeding occurred in 2.1% and 0.4% of patients in the antiplatelet and control groups (adjusted OR, 2.97 [95% CrI, 1.23-8.28]; adjusted absolute risk increase, 0.8% [95% CrI, 0.1%-2.7%]; 99.4% probability of harm). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with an antiplatelet agent, compared with no antiplatelet agent, had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days within 21 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy, including use of inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is common in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with increased bleeding. METHODS: In 8246 patients included in the EINSTEIN-VTE studies for acute VTE, we evaluated the effect of polypharmacy on bleeding and on the relative differences between rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist (VKA). We assessed the incidence of clinically relevant bleeding (major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding) by number of comedications (none, 1-3, ≥4) at baseline, and by use of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp inhibitors. Interaction between rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin/VKA and comedication was assessed by Cox regression analysis with pinteraction estimates. RESULTS: With increasing number of comedications, the incidence of clinically relevant bleeding rose from 5.7% to 13.3% in rivaroxaban recipients and from 9.1% to 11.1% in enoxaparin/VKA recipients. Whereas rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced bleeding risk compared with enoxaparin/VKA in patients without comedication (hazard ratio [HR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-0.9), the risk was similar in patients with ≥4 comedications (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.97-1.5, pinteraction .002). Use of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp inhibitors was associated with a doubled bleeding risk compared with no use, without a difference between rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/VKA. CONCLUSION: We conclude that fixed-dose rivaroxaban as compared with enoxaparin followed by dose-adjusted VKA is not associated with an increased bleeding risk in patients with VTE administered polypharmacy in general and CYP3A4 and/or P-gp inhibitors specifically. This implies that the observed increased bleeding risks with polypharmacy and use of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp inhibitors are likely explained by comorbidities and frailty, and not by pharmacokinetic interactions.

4.
Hamostaseologie ; 42(1): 54-64, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196731

ABSTRACT

Compared with nonpregnant women, pregnancy carries a four- to fivefold higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite increasing use of heparin prophylaxis in identified high-risk patients, pulmonary embolism still is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the western world. However, evidence on optimal use of thromboprophylaxis is scarce. Thrombophilia, the hereditary or acquired tendency to develop VTE, is also thought to be associated with complications in pregnancy, such as recurrent miscarriage and preeclampsia. In this review, the current evidence on optimal thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy is discussed, focusing primarily on VTE prevention strategies but also discussing the potential to prevent recurrent pregnancy complications with heparin in pregnant women with thrombophilia.


Subject(s)
Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/complications , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(5): 1158-1165, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrence after a venous thromboembolism (VTE) related to estrogen-containing contraceptives is a key driver to guide anticoagulant treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of recurrent VTE after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in women with a first episode of VTE related to estrogen-containing contraceptives. METHODS: Embase, MEDLINE, and the CENTRAL were searched from 1 January 2008 to 27 May 2021 for prospective and retrospective studies reporting on recurrence after a first VTE related to estrogen-containing contraceptives. Risk of bias was assessed using QUIPS tool. Recurrence rates per 100 patient-years were pooled using Knapp-Hartung random-effects meta-analysis. Incidence rates were reported separately based on study follow-up duration (≤1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years) and for several subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 4,120 studies were identified, of which 14 were included. The pooled recurrence rate was 1.57 (95%-CI: 1.10-2.23; I2  = 82%) per 100 patient-years. Recurrence rates per 100 patient-years were 2.73 (95%-CI: 0.00-3643; I2  = 80%) for studies with ≤1 year follow-up, 1.35 (95%-CI: 0.68-2.68; I2  = 44%) for studies with 1-5 years follow-up, and 1.42 (95%-CI: 0.84-2.42; I2  = 78%) for studies with >5 years follow-up. CONCLUSION: Among women with VTE associated with estrogen-containing contraceptives, the risk of recurrence after stopping anticoagulation is low, which favors short-term anticoagulation. Large prospective studies on VTE recurrence rates and risk factors after stopping short-term anticoagulants are needed.


Subject(s)
Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/adverse effects , Estrogens/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(5): 1089-1105, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Geographic variability in coagulation across populations and their determinants are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare thrombin (TG) and plasmin (PG) generation parameters between healthy Tanzanian and Dutch individuals, and to study associations with inflammation and different genetic, host and environmental factors. METHODS: TG and PG parameters were measured in 313 Tanzanians of African descent living in Tanzania and 392 Dutch of European descent living in the Netherlands and related to results of a dietary questionnaire, circulating inflammatory markers, genotyping, and plasma metabolomics. RESULTS: Tanzanians exhibited an enhanced TG and PG capacity, compared to Dutch participants. A higher proportion of Tanzanians had a TG value in the upper quartile with a PG value in the lower/middle quartile, suggesting a relative pro-coagulant state. Tanzanians also displayed an increased normalized thrombomodulin sensitivity ratio, suggesting reduced sensitivity to protein C. In Tanzanians, PG parameters (lag time and TTP) were associated with seasonality and food-derived plasma metabolites. The Tanzanians had higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which correlated strongly with TG and PG parameters. There was limited overlap in genetic variation associated with TG and PG parameters between the two cohorts. Pathway analysis of genetic variants in the Tanzanian cohort revealed multiple immune pathways that were enriched with TG and PG traits, confirming the importance of co-regulation between coagulation and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Tanzanians have an enhanced TG and PG potential compared to Dutch individuals, which may relate to differences in inflammation, genetics and diet. These observations highlight the importance of better understanding of the geographic variability in coagulation across populations.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolysin , Thrombin , Adult , Blood Coagulation/genetics , Blood Coagulation Tests , Fibrinolysin/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Thrombin/metabolism
7.
Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is approved for specific anticoagulation reversal in patients with life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding during treatment with rivaroxaban or apixaban. There is limited experience with andexanet in patients with acute bleeding on edoxaban. METHODS: Patients with acute major bleeding within 18 hours of edoxaban intake were prospectively enrolled. Patients received a bolus and 2-hour follow-on infusion of andexanet. The co-primary efficacy outcomes were change in antifactor Xa activity and the percentage of patients achieving excellent or good hemostasis, 12 hours after andexanet treatment. Efficacy was analyzed in patients with confirmed major bleeding and baseline antifactor Xa activity ≥40 ng/mL. Safety was analyzed in all patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (mean age: 82 years, 61.1% male and 91.7% with atrial fibrillation) with acute major bleeding on edoxaban received andexanet. The primary site of bleeding was intracranial in 29 patients (80.6%). In the efficacy population (n = 28), median antifactor Xa activity decreased from 121.1 (interquartile range [IQR]: 70.3-202.4) ng/mL at baseline to 24.0 (IQR: 77.7-83.7) ng/mL at the end of andexanet bolus (median decrease: 68.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1-77.7%). Excellent or good hemostasis at 12 hours was achieved in 78.6% (95% CI: 59.0-91.7%) of patients. Within 30 days, four patients (11.1%) experienced a thrombotic event and four others (11.1%) died. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute major bleeding on edoxaban, andexanet significantly decreased antifactor Xa activity. Hemostatic efficacy was similar to that observed in patients with bleeding on rivaroxaban or apixaban. Thrombotic events occurred at a rate expected in such patients.

8.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(8): e12638, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial injury and microcirculatory thromboses likely contribute to hypoxemic respiratory failure, the most common cause of death, in patients with COVID-19. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest differences in the effect of therapeutic heparin between moderately and severely ill patients with COVID-19. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to determine the effects of therapeutic heparin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, medRxiv, and medical conference proceedings for RCTs comparing therapeutic heparin with usual care, excluding trials that used oral anticoagulation or intermediate doses of heparin in the experimental arm. Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to combine odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 3 RCTs that compared therapeutic heparin to lower doses of heparin in 2854 moderately ill ward patients, and 3 RCTs in 1191 severely ill patients receiving critical care. In moderately ill patients, there was a nonsignificant reduction in all-cause death (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-1.02), but significant reductions in the composite of death or invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 0.98), and death or any thrombotic event (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Organ support-free days alive (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.57) were significantly increased with therapeutic heparin. There was a nonsignificant increase in major bleeding. In severely ill patients, there was no evidence for benefit of therapeutic heparin, with significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions with illness severity for all-cause death (P = .034). In conclusion, therapeutic heparin is beneficial in moderately ill patients but not in severely ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(8): e12630, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the leading approach in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (ChAdOx1) has been linked to a higher frequency of rare thrombosis and thromboembolism. This study aimed to explore markers related to the blood coagulation system activation and inflammation, before and after ChAdOx1 vaccination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 40 health care workers. Whole blood samples were collected before, and either 1 or 2 days after vaccination. Activated coagulation factors in complex with their natural inhibitors were determined by custom ELISAs, including thrombin:antithrombin (T:AT), kallikrein:C1-esterase-inhibitor (PKa:C1Inh), factor(F)IXa:AT, FXa:AT, FXIaAT, FXIa:alpha-1-antitrypsin (α1AT), FXIa:C1inh, and FVIIa:AT. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 were quantified via ELISA. Analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Levels of FVIIa:AT decreased with a median (IQR) of 707 (549-1028) pg/ml versus 598 (471-996) pg/ml, p = 0.01; and levels of IL-6 increased, 4.0 (1.9-6.8) pg/ml versus 6.9 (3.6-12.2) pg/ml, p = 0.02, after vaccination. No changes were observed in T:AT, PKa:C1Inh, FIXa:AT, FXa:AT, FXIaAT, FXIa:α1AT, FXIa:C1inh, and IL-18. CONCLUSION: ChAdOx1 leads to an inflammatory response with increased levels of IL-6. We did not observe activation of the blood coagulation system 1-2 days following vaccination.

10.
Neurology ; 98(7): e759-e768, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as a part of the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome is a rare adverse drug reaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. Estimated background rate of CVST with thrombocytopenia is 0.1 per million per month. We assessed the age-stratified risk of CVST with and without thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: We estimated the absolute risk of CVST with and without thrombocytopenia within 28 days of a first dose of 4 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations using data from the European Medicines Agency's EudraVigilance database (until June 13, 2021). As a denominator, we used data on vaccine delivery from 31 European countries. For 22.8 million adults from 25 countries, we estimated the absolute risk of CVST after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 per age category. RESULTS: The absolute risk of CVST within 28 days of first-dose vaccination was 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.3), 0.7 (95% CI 0.2-2.4), 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7), and 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-1.1) per million of first doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273, respectively. The absolute risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia within 28 days of first dose vaccination was 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9), 0.7 (95% CI 0.2-2.4), 0.0 (95% CI 0.0-0.1), and 0.0 (95% CI 0.0-0.2) per million of first doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273, respectively. In recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, the absolute risk of CVST, both with and without thrombocytopenia, was the highest in the 18- to 24-year-old group (7.3 per million, 95% CI 2.8-18.8 and 3.7 per million, 95% CI 1.0-13.3, respectively). The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia in ChAdOx1 nCov-19 recipients was the lowest in the age group ≥70 years (0.2, 95% CI 0.0-1.3). Age <60 years compared to ≥60 years was a predictor for CVST with thrombocytopenia (incidence rate ratio 5.79, 95% CI 2.98-11.24, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia within 28 days of first-dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 was higher in younger age groups. The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia was slightly increased in patients receiving Ad26.COV2.S compared with the estimated background risk. The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia was not increased in recipients of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Eur Radiol ; 32(4): 2178-2187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Closer reading of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans of patients presenting with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) may identify those at high risk of developing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We aimed to validate the predictive value of six radiological predictors that were previously proposed. METHODS: Three hundred forty-one patients with acute PE were prospectively followed for development of CTEPH in six European hospitals. Index CTPAs were analysed post hoc by expert chest radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. The accuracy of the predictors using a predefined threshold for 'high risk' (≥ 3 predictors) and the expert overall judgment on the presence of CTEPH were assessed. RESULTS: CTEPH was confirmed in nine patients (2.6%) during 2-year follow-up. Any sign of chronic thrombi was already present in 74/341 patients (22%) on the index CTPA, which was associated with CTEPH (OR 7.8, 95%CI 1.9-32); 37 patients (11%) had ≥ 3 of 6 radiological predictors, of whom 4 (11%) were diagnosed with CTEPH (sensitivity 44%, 95%CI 14-79; specificity 90%, 95%CI 86-93). Expert judgment raised suspicion of CTEPH in 27 patients, which was confirmed in 8 (30%; sensitivity 89%, 95%CI 52-100; specificity 94%, 95%CI 91-97). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ≥ 3 of 6 predefined radiological predictors was highly specific for a future CTEPH diagnosis, comparable to overall expert judgment, while the latter was associated with higher sensitivity. Dedicated CTPA reading for signs of CTEPH may therefore help in early detection of CTEPH after PE, although in our cohort this strategy would not have detected all cases. KEY POINTS: • Three expert chest radiologists re-assessed CTPA scans performed at the moment of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis and observed a high prevalence of chronic thrombi and signs of pulmonary hypertension. • On these index scans, the presence of ≥ 3 of 6 predefined radiological predictors was highly specific for a future diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), comparable to overall expert judgment. • Dedicated CTPA reading for signs of CTEPH may help in early detection of CTEPH after acute pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Angiography , Chronic Disease , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging
12.
Thromb Res ; 209: 41-46, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is an uncommon manifestation of venous thromboembolism. Epidemiological data on SVT-related mortality rate is not available to date. METHODS: We investigated time trends in SVT-related mortality rate, 2008-2019, in Veneto, an Italian high-income region of approximatively 5,000,000 inhabitants. SVT-related deaths were identified by the following ICD-10 codes: I81 (portal vein thrombosis), K75.1 (phlebitis of portal vein), K76.3 (liver infarction), K76.5 (hepatic veno-occlusive disease) or I82.0 (Budd-Chiari syndrome). RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 557,932 deaths were recorded. SVT was reported in 823 cases; 776 (94%) consisted of portal vein thrombosis. The age-standardized SVT-related mortality rate varied from 1.47 (year 2008) to 1.52 (year 2019) per 100,000 person-years. An increase in the cause-specific annual mortality rate was observed in women (0.56 in 2008 to 1.04 per 100,000 person-years in 2019; average annual percent change +5.7%, 95%CI +3.1; +8.3%). In men, the cause-specific mortality rate moved from 2.53 in 2008 to 2.03 per 100,000 person-years in 2019 (average annual percent change -1.2%, 95%CI -4.0; +1.6%). After conditioning for age and sex, the odds of having a concomitant liver disease were higher for SVT-related deaths (OR 31.6; 95%CI 17.1-37.0) compared with non-SVT-related deaths. This also applies to gastrointestinal cancers (OR 1.28; 95%CI 1.07-1.55), although to a lesser extent. CONCLUSIONS: We report first epidemiological estimates of SVT-related mortality in a Western country. These values will serve as a reference to weight novel potential factors associated with SVT-related death and interpret them from an epidemiological perspective.


Subject(s)
Budd-Chiari Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Portal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Splanchnic Circulation , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(1): 138-144, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a strong predictor for bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, but there are no data on cardiovascular outcomes for this biomarker in cancer patients. Bleeding risk assessment is important in cancer patients when considering primary thromboprophylaxis because it is associated with an increased bleeding risk. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate GDF-15 as predictor for bleeding events in cancer patients previously enrolled in the AVERT trial. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this trial, 574 participants were randomized to prophylactic apixaban or placebo and followed for 180 days for venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and any bleeding. Plasma concentrations of GDF-15 were measured centrally with the Elecsys GDF-15 commercial assay kit (Roche Diagnostics GmbH). RESULTS: In apixaban recipients, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of GDF-15 for major bleeding was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-1.00). Compared with the lowest GDF-15 tertile (<1470 ng/L), major bleeding risk was significantly higher in the highest tertile (≥2607 ng/L; hazard ratio [HR] 3.19; 95% CI, 2.41-4.22), also when adjusting for sex, age, antiplatelet use, and gastrointestinal cancer (adjusted HR 2.80; 95% CI, 1.91-4.11). GDF-15 was also significantly associated with clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (adjusted HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58) and any bleeding (adjusted HR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.38-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: Although hypothesis generating, this is the first study to show that GDF-15 predicts bleeding in cancer patients receiving thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Growth Differentiation Factor 15 , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
16.
BMJ ; 375: n2400, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic heparin compared with prophylactic heparin among moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital wards. DESIGN: Randomised controlled, adaptive, open label clinical trial. SETTING: 28 hospitals in Brazil, Canada, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and US. PARTICIPANTS: 465 adults admitted to hospital wards with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels were recruited between 29 May 2020 and 12 April 2021 and were randomly assigned to therapeutic dose heparin (n=228) or prophylactic dose heparin (n=237). INTERVENTIONS: Therapeutic dose or prophylactic dose heparin (low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin), to be continued until hospital discharge, day 28, or death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of death, invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or admission to an intensive care unit, assessed up to 28 days. The secondary outcomes included all cause death, the composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation, and venous thromboembolism. Safety outcomes included major bleeding. Outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 60 years; 264 (56.8%) were men and the mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. At 28 days, the primary composite outcome had occurred in 37/228 patients (16.2%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 52/237 (21.9%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (odds ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.10; P=0.12). Deaths occurred in four patients (1.8%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 18 patients (7.6%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.22, 0.07 to 0.65; P=0.006). The composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (10.1%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 38 (16.0%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.59, 0.34 to 1.02; P=0.06). Venous thromboembolism occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and six (2.5%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.34, 0.07 to 1.71; P=0.19). Major bleeding occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and four (1.7%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.52, 0.09 to 2.85; P=0.69). CONCLUSIONS: In moderately ill patients with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels admitted to hospital wards, therapeutic heparin was not significantly associated with a reduction in the primary outcome but the odds of death at 28 days was decreased. The risk of major bleeding appeared low in this trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04362085.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Stroke ; 53(2): 532-543, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unestablished whether andexanet alfa, compared with guideline-based usual care including prothrombin complex concentrates, is associated with reduced hematoma expansion (HE) and mortality in patients with factor-Xa inhibitor-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We compared the occurrence of HE and clinical outcomes in patients treated either with andexanet alfa or with usual care during the acute phase of factor-Xa inhibitor-related ICH. METHODS: Data were extracted from the multicenter, prospective, single-arm ANNEXA-4 trial (Andexanet Alfa, a Novel Antidote to the Anticoagulation Effects of Factor Xa Inhibitors) and a multicenter observational cohort study, RETRACE-II (German-Wide Multicenter Analysis of Oral Anticoagulant-Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage - Part Two). HE was based on computed tomography scans performed within 36 hours from baseline imaging. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed to adjust for baseline comorbidities and ICH severity. Patients presenting with atraumatic ICH while receiving apixaban or rivaroxaban within 18 hours of admission were included. Patients with secondary ICH or not fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the ANNEXA-4 trial were excluded. We compared ANNEXA-4 patients, who received andexanet alfa for hemostatic treatment, with RETRACE-II patients who were treated with usual care, primarily administration of prothrombin complex concentrates. Primary outcome was rate of HE defined as relative increase of ≥35%. Secondary outcomes comprised mean absolute change in hematoma volume, as well as in-hospital mortality and functional outcome. RESULTS: Overall, 182 patients with factor-Xa inhibitor-related ICH (85 receiving andexanet alfa versus 97 receiving usual care) were selected for analysis. There were no relevant differences regarding demographic or clinical characteristics between both groups. HE occurred in 11 of 80 (14%) andexanet alfa patients compared with 21 of 67 (36%) usual care patients (adjusted relative risk, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.78]; P=0.005), with a reduction in mean overall hematoma volume change of 7 mL. There were no statistically significant differences among in-hospital mortality or functional outcomes. Sensitivity analysis including only usual care patients receiving prothrombin complex concentrates demonstrated consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with usual care, andexanet alfa was associated with a lower rate of HE in atraumatic factor-Xa inhibitor-related ICH, however, without translating into significantly improved clinical outcomes. A comparative trial is needed to confirm the benefit on limiting HE and to explore clinical outcomes across patient subgroups and by time to treatment. Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02329327 and NCT03093233.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/genetics , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Factor Xa/therapeutic use , Hematoma/etiology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
18.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581763

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
19.
Trials ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used worldwide for 70 years during all non-cardiac arterial procedures (NCAP) to reduce thrombo-embolic complications (TEC). But heparin also increases blood loss causing possible harm for the patient. Heparin has an unpredictable effect in the individual patient. The activated clotting time (ACT) can measure the effect of heparin. Currently, this ACT is not measured during NCAP as the standard of care, contrary to during cardiac interventions, open and endovascular. A RCT will evaluate if ACT-guided heparinization results in less TEC than the current standard: a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin and no measurements at all. A goal ACT of 200-220 s should be reached during ACT-guided heparinization and this should decrease (mortality caused by) TEC, while not increasing major bleeding complications. This RCT will be executed during open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery, as this is a standardized procedure throughout Europe. METHODS: Seven hundred fifty patients, who will undergo open AAA repair of an aneurysm originating below the superior mesenteric artery, will be randomised in 2 treatment arms: 5000 IU of heparin and no ACT measurements and no additional doses of heparin, or a protocol of 100 IU/kg bolus of heparin and ACT measurements after 5 min, and then every 30 min. The goal ACT is 200-220 s. If the ACT after 5 min is < 180 s, 60 IU/kg will be administered; if the ACT is between 180 and 200 s, 30 IU/kg. If the ACT is > 220 s, no extra heparin is given, and the ACT is measured after 30 min and then the same protocol is applied. The expected incidence for the combined endpoint of TEC and mortality is 19% for the 5000 IU group and 11% for the ACT-guided group. DISCUSSION: The ACTION-1 trial is an international RCT during open AAA surgery, designed to show superiority of ACT-guided heparinization compared to the current standard of a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin. A significant reduction in TEC and mortality, without more major bleeding complications, must be proven with a relevant economic benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION {2A}: NTR NL8421 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04061798 . Registered on 20 August 2019 EudraCT 2018-003393-27 TRIAL REGISTRATION: DATA SET {2B}: Data category Information Primary registry and trial identifying number ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT04061798 Date of registration in primary registry 20-08-2019 Secondary identifying numbers NTR: NL8421 EudraCT: 2018-003393-27 Source(s) of monetary or material support ZonMw: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development Dijklander Ziekenhuis Amsterdam UMC Primary sponsor Dijklander Ziekenhuis Secondary sponsor(s) N/A Contact for public queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD Arno@wiersema.nu 0031-229 208 206 Contact for scientific queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD Arno@wiersema.nu 0031-229 208 206 Public title ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair (ACTION-1) Scientific title ACTION-1: ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, a Randomised Trial Countries of recruitment The Netherlands. Soon the recruitment will start in Germany Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied Abdominal aortic aneurysm, arterial disease, surgery Intervention(s) ACT-guided heparinization 5000 IU of heparin Key inclusion and exclusion criteria Ages eligible for the study: ≥18 years Sexes eligible for the study: both Accepts healthy volunteers: no Inclusion criteria: Study type Interventional Allocation: randomized Intervention model: parallel assignment Masking: single blind (patient) Primary purpose: treatment Phase IV Date of first enrolment March 2020 Target sample size 750 Recruitment status Recruiting Primary outcome(s) The primary efficacy endpoint is 30-day mortality and in-hospital mortality during the same admission. The primary safety endpoint is the incidence of bleeding complications according to E-CABG classification, grade 1 and higher. Key secondary outcomes Serious complications as depicted in the Suggested Standards for Reports on Aneurysmal disease: all complications requiring re-operation, longer hospital stay, all complications.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3080-3089, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with macro- and micro-thromboses, which are triggered by endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Conventional antithrombotic agents are under assessment in dozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with COVID-19, with preliminary results not demonstrating benefit in several studies. OBJECTIVES: Given the possibility that more novel agents with antithrombotic effects may have a potential utility for management of patients with COVID-19, we assessed ongoing RCTs including these agents with their potential mechanism of action in this population. METHODS: We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify RCTs of novel antithrombotic agents in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on a systematic literature search, 27 RCTs with 10 novel antithrombotic agents (including nafamostat, dociparstat, rNAPc2, and defibrotide) were identified. The results from these trials have not been disseminated yet. The studied drugs in the ongoing or completed RCTs include agents affecting the coagulation cascade, drugs affecting endothelial activation, and mixed acting agents. Their postulated antithrombotic mechanisms of action and their potential impact on patient management are summarized. CONCLUSION: Some novel antithrombotic agents have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, which may help reduce the viral load or fibrosis, and improve oxygenation. Results from ongoing RCTs will elucidate their actual role in the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents , Antiviral Agents , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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