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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785791

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing number of COVID-19-infected and vaccinated individuals, radiologists continue to see patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis and recall pneumonitis, which could result in additional workups and false-positive results. Moreover, cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy may show therapy-related pneumonitis during imaging management. This is otherwise known as immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis. Following on from this background, radiologists should seek to know their patients' COVID-19 infection and vaccination history. Knowing the imaging features related to COVID-19 infection and vaccination is critical to avoiding misleading results and alarmism in patients and clinicians.

2.
Tomography ; 8(2): 1041-1051, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776350

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of the outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, as of 1 September 2021, the World Health Organization has confirmed more than 239 million cases of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with more than 4.5 million deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly involves the respiratory tract, it is considered to be a systemic disease. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of COVID-19 disease, as well as its related complications. The figure of the radiologist is fundamental in the management and treatment of the patient. The authors try to provide a systematic approach based on an imaging review of major multi-organ manifestations of this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321820

ABSTRACT

Recent epidemiological data report that worldwide more than 53 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2, resulting in 1.3 million deaths. The disease has been spreading very rapidly and few months after the identification of the first infected, shortage of hospital resources quickly became a problem. In this work we investigate whether chest X-ray (CXR) can be used as a possible tool for the early identification of patients at risk of severe outcome, like intensive care or death. CXR is a radiological technique that compared to computed tomography (CT) it is simpler, faster, more widespread and it induces lower radiation dose. We present a dataset including data collected from 820 patients by six Italian hospitals in spring 2020 during the first COVID-19 emergency. The dataset includes CXR images, several clinical attributes and clinical outcomes. We investigate the potential of artificial intelligence to predict the prognosis of such patients, distinguishing between severe and mild cases, thus offering a baseline reference for other researchers and practitioners. To this goal, we present three approaches that use features extracted from CXR images, either handcrafted or automatically by convolutional neuronal networks, which are then integrated with the clinical data. Exhaustive evaluation shows promising performance both in 10-fold and leave-one-centre-out cross-validation, implying that clinical data and images have the potential to provide useful information for the management of patients and hospital resources.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

5.
Med Image Anal ; 74: 102216, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373186

ABSTRACT

Recent epidemiological data report that worldwide more than 53 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2, resulting in 1.3 million deaths. The disease has been spreading very rapidly and few months after the identification of the first infected, shortage of hospital resources quickly became a problem. In this work we investigate whether artificial intelligence working with chest X-ray (CXR) scans and clinical data can be used as a possible tool for the early identification of patients at risk of severe outcome, like intensive care or death. Indeed, further to induce lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT), CXR is a simpler and faster radiological technique, being also more widespread. In this respect, we present three approaches that use features extracted from CXR images, either handcrafted or automatically learnt by convolutional neuronal networks, which are then integrated with the clinical data. As a further contribution, this work introduces a repository that collects data from 820 patients enrolled in six Italian hospitals in spring 2020 during the first COVID-19 emergency. The dataset includes CXR images, several clinical attributes and clinical outcomes. Exhaustive evaluation shows promising performance both in 10-fold and leave-one-centre-out cross-validation, suggesting that clinical data and images have the potential to provide useful information for the management of patients and hospital resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302361

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: the purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of computed tomography (CT) findings and lung residue in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, via quantified evaluation of the disease, using a computer aided tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we retrospectively evaluated 341 CT examinations of 140 patients (68 years of median age) infected with COVID-19 (confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), who were hospitalized, and who received clinical and CT examinations. All CTs were evaluated by two expert radiologists, in consensus, at the same reading session, using a computer-aided tool for quantification of the pulmonary disease. The parameters obtained using the computer tool included the healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity, consolidation, and total lung volume. RESULTS: statistically significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05) were found among quantified volumes of healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, and total lung volume, considering different clinical conditions (stable, improved, and worsened). Statistically significant differences were found among quantified volumes for healthy residual parenchyma, GGO, and consolidation (p value ≤ 0.05) between dead patients and discharged patients. CT was not performed on cadavers; the death was an outcome, which was retrospectively included to differentiate findings of patients who survived vs. patients who died during hospitalization. Among discharged patients, complete disease resolutions on CT scans were observed in 62/129 patients with lung disease involvement ≤5%; lung disease involvement from 5% to 15% was found in 40/129 patients, while 27/129 patients had lung disease involvement between 16 and 30%. Moreover, 8-21 days (after hospital admission) was an "advanced period" with the most severe lung disease involvement. After the extent of involvement started to decrease-particularly after 21 days-the absorption was more obvious. CONCLUSIONS: a complete disease resolution on chest CT scans was observed in 48.1% of discharged patients using a computer-aided tool to quantify the GGO and consolidation volumes; after 16 days of hospital admission, the abnormalities identified by chest CT began to improve; in particular, the absorption was more obvious after 21 days.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270052

ABSTRACT

The infection caused by novel beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. However, in the last 20 years, this has not been the only viral infection to cause respiratory tract infections leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, referring in particular to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza H1N1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Although in this pandemic period SARS-CoV-2 infection should be the first diagnosis to exclude, many other viruses can cause pulmonary manifestations and have to be recognized. Through the description of the main radiological patterns, radiologists can suggest the diagnosis of viral pneumonia, also combining information from clinical and laboratory data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247989

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) is the cancer with the highest incidence in women in the world. In this last period, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused in many cases a drastic reduction of routine breast imaging activity due to the combination of various factors. The survival of BC is directly proportional to the earliness of diagnosis, and especially during this period, it is at least fundamental to remember that a diagnostic delay of even just three months could affect BC outcomes. In this article we will review the state of the art of breast imaging, starting from morphological imaging, i.e., mammography, tomosynthesis, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced mammography, and their most recent evolutions; and ending with functional images, i.e., magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhanced mammography.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Delayed Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(8): 721-732, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201614

ABSTRACT

Thoracic imaging is fundamental in the diagnostic route of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in patients admitted to hospitals. In particular, chest computed tomography (CT) has a key role in identifying the typical features of the infection. Ground-glass opacities (GGO) are one of the main CT findings, but their presence is not specific for this viral pneumonia. In fact, GGO is a radiological sign of different pathologies with both acute and subacute/chronic clinical manifestations. In the evaluation of a subject with focal or diffuse GGO, the radiologist has to know the patient's medical history to obtain a valid diagnostic hypothesis. The authors describe the various CT appearance of GGO, related to the onset of symptoms, focusing also on the ancillary signs that can help radiologist to obtain a correct and prompt diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125047

ABSTRACT

During a spontaneous and autonomous study, we assessed the ultrasound finding of lymphadenopathy after BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. We enrolled 18 patients with 58 lymphadenopathies: in 10 patients, they were in the laterocervical side, while in 8 patients in the axillar site. The largest diameter was 16 mm with a range from 7 to 16 mm (median value = 10 mm). In the same patient, we found different ultrasound nodal findings. A total of 25 nodes showed eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape. In total, 19 nodes showed asymmetric eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape. Overall, 10 nodes showed concentric cortical thickening with reduction in the width of the echogenic hilum and oval shape. A total of four nodes showed huge reduction and displacement of the echogenic hilum and round or oval shape. No anomaly was found at the Doppler echocolor study. In conclusion, eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape, asymmetric eccentric cortical thickening with wide echogenic hilum and oval shape, concentric cortical thickening with reduction in the width of the echogenic hilum and oval shape, and a huge reduction and displacement of the echogenic hilum and round shape are the features that we found in post BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine lymphadenopathies.

12.
Insights Imaging ; 12(1): 23, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has played havoc within healthcare systems, with radiology sharing a substantial burden. Our purpose is to report findings from a survey on the crisis impact among members of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM). METHODS: All members were invited to a 42-question online survey about the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on personal and family life, professional activity, socioeconomic and psychological condition. Participants were classified based on working in the most severely affected Italian regions ("hot regions") or elsewhere. RESULTS: A total of 2150 radiologists joined the survey. More than 60% of respondents estimated a workload reduction greater than 50%, with a higher prevalence among private workers in hot regions (72.7% vs 66.5% elsewhere, p = 0.1010). Most respondents were concerned that the COVID-19 outbreak could impact the management of non-COVID-19 patients and expected a work overload after the crisis. More than 40% were moderately or severely worried that their professional activity could be damaged, and most residents believed that their training had been affected. More than 50% of respondents had increased emotional stress at work, including moderate or severe symptoms due to sleep disturbances, feeling like living in slow motion and having negative thoughts, those latter being more likely in single-living respondents from hot regions [log OR 0.7108 (CI95% 0.3445 ÷ 1.0770), p = 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak has had a sensible impact on the working and personal life of SIRM members, with more specific criticalities in hot regions. Our findings could aid preserving the radiologists' wellbeing after the crisis.

13.
Clin Imaging ; 76: 144-148, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To understand how COVID-19 pandemic has changed radiology research in Italy. METHODS: A questionnaire (n = 19 questions) was sent to all members of the Italian Society of Radiology two months after the first Italian national lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: A total of 327 Italian radiologists took part in the survey (mean age: 49 ± 12 years). After national lockdown, the working-flow came back to normal in the vast majority of cases (285/327, 87.2%). Participants reported that a total of 462 radiological trials were recruiting patients at their institutions prior to COVID-19 outbreak, of which 332 (71.9%) were stopped during the emergency. On the other hand, 252 radiological trials have been started during the pandemic, of which 156 were non-COVID-19 trials (61.9%) and 96 were focused on COVID-19 patients (38.2%). The majority of radiologists surveyed (61.5%) do not conduct research. Of the radiologists who carried on research activities, participants reported a significant increase of the number of hours per week spent for research purposes during national lockdown (mean 4.5 ± 8.9 h during lockdown vs. 3.3 ± 6.8 h before lockdown; p = .046), followed by a significant drop after the lockdown was lifted (3.2 ± 6.5 h per week, p = .035). During national lockdown, 15.6% of participants started new review articles and completed old papers, 14.1% completed old works, and 8.9% started new review articles. Ninety-six surveyed radiologists (29.3%) declared to have submitted at least one article during COVID-19 emergency. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to support radiology research in challenging scenarios like COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Radiol Med ; 126(5): 661-668, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of our study are: (1) to estimate admission chest X-ray (CXR) accuracy during the descending phase of pandemic; (2) to identify specific CXR findings strictly associated with COVID-19 infection; and (3) to correlate lung involvement of admission CXR with patients' outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the admission CXR of 327 patients accessed to our institute during the Italian pandemic descending phase (April 2020). For each CXR were searched ground glass opacification (GGO), consolidation (CO), reticular-nodular opacities (RNO), nodules, excavations, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, vascular congestion and cardiac enlargement. For lung alterations was defined the predominance (upper or basal, focal or diffuse, central or peripheric, etc.). Then radiologists assessed whether CXRs were suggestive or not for COVID-19 infection. For COVID-19 patients, a prognostic score was applied and correlated with the patients' outcome. RESULTS: CXR showed 83% of specificity and 60% of sensitivity. GGO, CO, RNO and a peripheric, diffuse and basal prevalence showed good correlation with COVID-19 diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis pointed out GGO and a basal or diffuse distribution as independent predictors of COVID-19 diagnosis. The prognostic score showed good correlation with the patients' outcome. CONCLUSION: In our study, admission CXR showed a fair specificity and a good correlation with patients' outcome. GGO and others CXR findings showed a good correlation with COVID-19 diagnosis; besides GGO a diffuse or bibasal distribution resulted in independent variables highly suggestive for COVID-19 infection thus enabling radiologists to signal to clinicians radiologically suspect patients during the pandemic descending phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Emergency Service, Hospital , Radiography, Thoracic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Radiol Med ; 126(4): 570-576, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is considered a major risk factor for fatal outcome in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the possible association between computed tomography (CT) signs of chronic CVD and mortality in infected patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a double-blind retrospective evaluation of the cerebral CT scans of 83 COVID-19 patients looking for CT signs of chronic CVD. We developed a rapid visual score, named CVD-CT, which summarized the possible presence of parietal calcifications and dolichosis, with or without ectasia, of intracranial arteries, areas of chronic infarction and leukoaraiosis. Statistical analysis was carried out with weighted Cohen's K test for inter-reader agreement and logistic regression to evaluate the association of in-hospital mortality with CVD-CT, chest X-ray (CXR) severity score (Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema-RALE) for radiological assessment of pulmonary disease, sex and age. RESULTS: CVD-CT (odds ratio 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.2-2.1, p = 0.001) was associated with increased risk of mortality. RALE showed an almost significant association (odds ratio 1.05, 95% C.I. 1-1.1, p 0.06), whereas age and sex did not. CONCLUSION: CVD-CT is associated with risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The presence of CT signs of chronic CVD may be correlated to a condition of fragility of the circulatory system, which constitutes a key risk factor for death in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Immunol Lett ; 228: 122-128, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909223

ABSTRACT

As of October 2020 management of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based on supportive care and off-label or compassionate-use therapies. On March 2020 tocilizumab - an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody - was suggested as immunomodulatory treatment in severe COVID-19 because hyperinflammatory syndrome occurs in many patients similarly to the cytokine release syndrome that develops after CAR-T cell therapy. In our retrospective observational study, 20 severe COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care were treated with tocilizumab in addition to standard-of-care therapy (SOC) and compared with 13 COVID-19 patients receiving only SOC. Clinical respiratory status, inflammatory markers and vascular radiologic score improved after one week from tocilizumab administration. On the contrary, these parameters were stable or worsened in patients receiving only SOC. Despite major study limitations, improvement of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as well as vascular radiologic score after one week may account for improved pulmonary vascular perfusion and could explain the more rapid recovery of COVID-19 patients receiving tocilizumab compared to controls.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiration/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(18):6914, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-783872

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare different commercial software in the quantification of Pneumonia Lesions in COVID-19 infection and to stratify the patients based on the disease severity using on chest computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined 162 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. All cases were evaluated separately by radiologists (visually) and by using three computer software programs: (1) Thoracic VCAR software, GE Healthcare, United States;(2) Myrian, Intrasense, France;(3) InferRead, InferVision Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany. The degree of lesions was visually scored by the radiologist using a score on 5 levels (none, mild, moderate, severe, and critic). The parameters obtained using the computer tools included healthy residual lung parenchyma, ground-glass opacity area, and consolidation volume. Intraclass coefficient (ICC), Spearman correlation analysis, and non-parametric tests were performed. Results: Thoracic VCAR software was not able to perform volumes segmentation in 26/162 (16.0%) cases, Myrian software in 12/162 (7.4%) patients while InferRead software in 61/162 (37.7%) patients. A great variability (ICC ranged for 0.17 to 0.51) was detected among the quantitative measurements of the residual healthy lung parenchyma volume, GGO, and consolidations volumes calculated by different computer tools. The overall radiological severity score was moderately correlated with the residual healthy lung parenchyma volume obtained by ThoracicVCAR or Myrian software, with the GGO area obtained by the ThoracicVCAR tool and with consolidation volume obtained by Myrian software. Quantified volumes by InferRead software had a low correlation with the overall radiological severity score. Conclusions: Computer-aided pneumonia quantification could be an easy and feasible way to stratify COVID-19 cases according to severity;however, a great variability among quantitative measurements provided by computer tools should be considered.

19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(8-S): 51-59, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782628

ABSTRACT

Novel beta-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is the cause of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and on March 12th 2020, the World Health Organization defined COVID-19 as a controllable pandemic. Currently, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can be identified by virus isolation or viral nucleic acid detection; however, false negatives associated with the nucleic acid detection provide a clinical challenge. Imaging examination has become the indispensable means not only in the early detection and diagnosis but also in monitoring the clinical course, evaluating the disease severity, and may be presented as an important warning signal preceding the negative RT-PCR test results. Different radiological modalities can be used in different disease settings. Radiology Departments must be nimble in implementing operational changes to ensure continued radiology services and protect patients and staff health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiography/standards , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Radiol Med ; 125(8): 730-737, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591499

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe the main chest radiological features (CXR) of COVID-19 and correlate them with clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving patients with clinical-epidemiological suspect of COVID-19 infection, who performed CXRs at the emergency department (ED) of our University Hospital from March 1 to March 31, 2020. All patients performed RT-PCR nasopharyngeal and throat swab, CXR at the ED and clinical-epidemiological data. RT-PCR results were considered the reference standard. The final outcome was expressed as discharged or hospitalized patients into a medicine department or intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Patients that had a RT-PCR positive for COVID-19 infection were 234 in total: 153 males (65.4%) and 81 females (34.6%), with a mean age of 66.04 years (range 18-97 years). Thirteen CXRs were negative for radiological thoracic involvement (5.6%). The following alterations were more commonly observed: 135 patients with lung consolidations (57.7%), 147 (62.8%) with GGO, 55 (23.5%) with nodules and 156 (66.6%) with reticular-nodular opacities. Patients with consolidations and GGO coexistent in the same radiography were 35.5% of total. Peripheral (57.7%) and lower zone distribution (58.5%) were the most common predominance. Moreover, bilateral involvement (69.2%) was most frequent than unilateral one. Baseline CXR sensitivity in our experience is about 67.1%. The most affected patients were especially males in the age group 60-79 years old (45.95%, of which 71.57% males). RALE score was slightly higher in male than in female patients. ANOVA with Games-Howell post hoc showed significant differences of RALE scores for group 1 vs 3 (p < 0.001) and 2 vs 3 (p = 0.001). Inter-reader agreement in assigning RALE score was very good (ICC: 0.92-with 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.95). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, CXR shows patchy or diffuse reticular-nodular opacities and consolidation, with basal, peripheral and bilateral predominance. In our experience, baseline CXR had a sensitivity of 68.1%. The RALE score can be used in the emergency setting as a quantitative method of the extent of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, correlating with an increased risk of ICU admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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