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1.
Immunity ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936566

ABSTRACT

Many immunocompromised patients mount suboptimal humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Here, we assessed the single-cell profile of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells post-mRNA vaccination in healthy individuals and patients with various forms of immunodeficiencies. Impaired vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity was observed in many immunocompromised patients, particularly in solid-organ transplant and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Notably, individuals with an inherited lack of mature B cells, i.e., X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) displayed highly functional spike-specific T cell responses. Single-cell RNA-sequencing further revealed that mRNA vaccination induced a broad functional spectrum of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in healthy individuals and patients with XLA. These responses were founded on polyclonal repertoires of CD4+ T cells and robust expansions of oligoclonal effector-memory CD45RA+ CD8+ T cells with stem-like characteristics. Collectively, our data provide the functional continuum of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses post-mRNA vaccination, highlighting that cell-mediated immunity is of variable functional quality across immunodeficiency syndromes.

2.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 20, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707603

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune responses have been studied extensively in the course of mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Considerably fewer studies have assessed the effects on innate immune cells. Here, we characterized NK cells in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients in the course of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA prospective, open-label clinical vaccine trial. See trial registration description in notes. Results revealed preserved NK cell numbers, frequencies, subsets, phenotypes, and function as assessed through consecutive peripheral blood samplings at 0, 10, 21, and 35 days following vaccination. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of NKG2C+ NK cells at baseline (Day 0) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab titers following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination at Day 35. The present results provide basic insights in regards to NK cells in the context of mRNA vaccination, and have relevance for future mRNA-based vaccinations against COVID-19, other viral infections, and cancer.Trial registration: The current study is based on clinical material from the COVAXID open-label, non-randomized prospective clinical trial registered at EudraCT and clinicaltrials.gov (no. 2021-000175-37). Description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04780659?term=2021-000175-37&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Med (N Y) ; 3(2): 137-153.e3, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised individuals are highly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Whether vaccine-induced immunity in these individuals involves oral cavity, a primary site of infection, is presently unknown. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients (n = 404) and healthy controls (n = 82) participated in a prospective clinical trial (NCT04780659) encompassing two doses of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. Primary immunodeficiency (PID), secondary immunodeficiencies caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)/chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T), solid organ transplantation (SOT), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients were included. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to SARS-CoV-2 spike were measured by multiplex bead-based assays and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay. FINDINGS: IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in saliva in HIV and HSCT/CAR-T groups were comparable to those of healthy controls after vaccination. The PID, SOT, and CLL patients had weaker responses, influenced mainly by disease parameters or immunosuppressants. Salivary responses correlated remarkably well with specific IgG titers and the neutralizing capacity in serum. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the predictive power of salivary IgG yielded area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95 and positive predictive value (PPV) = 90.7% for the entire cohort after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva conveys vaccine responses induced by mRNA BNT162b2. The predictive power of salivary spike IgG makes it highly suitable for screening vulnerable groups for revaccination. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Erling Perssons family foundation, Region Stockholm, Swedish Research Council, Karolinska Institutet, Swedish Blood Cancer Foundation, PID patient organization of Sweden, Nordstjernan AB, Center for Medical Innovation (CIMED), Swedish Medical Research Council, and Stockholm County Council (ALF).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103705, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with immunocompromised disorders have mainly been excluded from clinical trials of vaccination against COVID-19. Thus, the aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate safety and efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in five selected groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 539 study subjects (449 patients and 90 controls) were included. The patients had either primary (n=90), or secondary immunodeficiency disorders due to human immunodeficiency virus infection (n=90), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation/CAR T cell therapy (n=90), solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n=89), or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n=90). The primary endpoint was seroconversion rate two weeks after the second dose. The secondary endpoints were safety and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: Adverse events were generally mild, but one case of fatal suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction occurred. 72.2% of the immunocompromised patients seroconverted compared to 100% of the controls (p=0.004). Lowest seroconversion rates were found in the SOT (43.4%) and CLL (63.3%) patient groups with observed negative impact of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ibrutinib, respectively. INTERPRETATION: The results showed that the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine was safe in immunocompromised patients. Rate of seroconversion was substantially lower than in healthy controls, with a wide range of rates and antibody titres among predefined patient groups and subgroups. This clinical trial highlights the need for additional vaccine doses in certain immunocompromised patient groups to improve immunity. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, Nordstjernan AB, Region Stockholm, Karolinska Institutet, and organizations for PID/CLL-patients in Sweden.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):32-33, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338993

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe infectious complication in patients with underlying medical conditions such as having undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). This prospective survey reports outcome on 272 COVID-19 patients from 19 countries having undergone allogeneic (n = 175) or autologous (n = 97) HCT reported to the EBMT registry or to the GETH. All patients had the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 documented by PCR. Patients were included in this analysis if COVID-19 diagnosis was before April 10, 2020. The overall survival was estimate by using the Kaplan Meier methods, considering the death due to any cause as an event and the time from COVID-19 infection to the latest follow-up as survival time;difference between groups were tested by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analysis for overall survival were performed with the Cox regression model.The median age was 54.4 years (1.0 - 80.3) for allogeneic and 60.9 years (7.7 - 73.4) for autologous HCT patients. 20 patients were children (<18 years of age;median age 11.3 (1.0 - 16.9)). The median time from HCT to diagnosis of COVID-19 was 13.7 months (0.2 - 254.3) in allogeneic and 25.0 months (-0.9 - 350.3) in autologous recipients. Lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) developed in 84.8% and 21.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). At the time of analysis, 68/238 (28.6%) patients had died (47/155 allogeneic patients;21/83 autologous patients). No follow-up had been received on 34 patients. The median time from infection to death was 19 days (0-102). Five patients were reported to have other primary causes of death than COVID-19. Of the patients reported to be alive, the median follow-up was 44 days. 144 (84.7%) patients (93 allogeneic;51 autologous) had virologic resolution of the COVID-19 infection having at least one negative PCR. 26 patients were alive and known to be still COVID-19 positive (15 allogeneic;11 autologous). For 34 patients the resolution status was unknown. Factors influencing the likelihood of resolution in multivariate analysis were underlying diagnosis (p=.01) and longer time from transplant to diagnosis of COVID-19 (p=.035).Overall survival at 6 weeks from COVID-19 diagnosis was 76.8% and 83.8% in allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients (p =ns), respectively (figure 1). Children (n=20) tended to do better with a 6-week survival of 95.0% although the difference was not significantly different (p =.12). In multivariate analysis of the total population older age (HR 1.26;95% CI 1.05 - 1.51;p = .01) increased the risk and better performance status decreased the risk for fatal outcome (HR 0.79;95% CI 0.69 - 0.90;p = .0003). The same factors had significant impact on overall survival in allogeneic HCT recipients (age HR 1.28;95% CI 1.05 - 1.55;p=.01;performance status HR 0.79;95% CI 0.68 - 0.92);p=.002) while only age impacted survival among autologous HCT patients (data not shown). Other transplant factors such as underlying diagnosis, time from HCT to diagnosis of COVID-19, graft-vs-host disease, or ongoing immunosuppression did not have a significant impact on overall survival.We conclude that HCT patients are at an increased risk compared to the general population to develop LRTD, require admission to ICU, and have increased mortality in COVID-19.Figure 1

7.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2885-2894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253922

ABSTRACT

This study reports on 382 COVID-19 patients having undergone allogeneic (n = 236) or autologous (n = 146) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or to the Spanish Group of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (GETH). The median age was 54.1 years (1.0-80.3) for allogeneic, and 60.6 years (7.7-81.6) for autologous HCT patients. The median time from HCT to COVID-19 was 15.8 months (0.2-292.7) in allogeneic and 24.6 months (-0.9 to 350.3) in autologous recipients. 83.5% developed lower respiratory tract disease and 22.5% were admitted to an ICU. Overall survival at 6 weeks from diagnosis was 77.9% and 72.1% in allogeneic and autologous recipients, respectively. Children had a survival of 93.4%. In multivariate analysis, older age (p = 0.02), need for ICU (p < 0.0001) and moderate/high immunodeficiency index (p = 0.04) increased the risk while better performance status (p = 0.001) decreased the risk for mortality. Other factors such as underlying diagnosis, time from HCT, GVHD, or ongoing immunosuppression did not significantly impact overall survival. We conclude that HCT patients are at high risk of developing LRTD, require admission to ICU, and have increased mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate , Transplantation, Homologous , Young Adult
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