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1.
Neurol Ther ; 10(2): 435-454, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198531

ABSTRACT

The use of immune reconstitution therapies (IRT) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is associated with a prolonged period of freedom from relapses in the absence of continuously applied therapy. Cladribine tablets is a disease-modifying treatment (DMT) indicated for highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) as defined by clinical or imaging features. Treatment with cladribine tablets is effective and well tolerated in patients with active MS disease and have a low burden of monitoring during and following treatment. In this article, an expert group of specialist neurologists involved in the care of patients with MS in the United Arab Emirates provides their consensus recommendations for the practical use of cladribine tablets according to the presenting phenotype of patients with RRMS. The IRT approach may be especially useful for patients with highly active MS insufficiently responsive to treatment with a first-line DMT, those who are likely to adhere poorly to a continuous therapeutic regimen, treatment-naïve patients with high disease activity at first presentation, or patients planning a family who are prepared to wait until at least 6 months after the end of treatment. Information available to date does not suggest an adverse interaction between cladribine tablets and COVID-19 infection. Data are unavailable at this time regarding the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in patients treated with cladribine tablets. Robust immunological responses to COVID-19 infection or to other vaccines have been observed in patients receiving this treatment, and treatment with cladribine tablets per se should not represent a barrier to this vaccination.

2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 199: 106227, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 controls, and to describe changes in stroke admission patterns during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational study. All consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnosis of ischemic/ hemorrhagic stroke between March1st -May10th 2020 were included and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 41.9% increase in stroke admissions in 2020 (148 vs 210,P = .001). When comparing all ischemic strokes, higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (18.3% vs 33.8%,P = .008) and significant delay in initiation of mechanical thrombectomy after hospital arrival (67.75 vs 104.30 minutes,P = .001) was observed in 2020. When comparing all hemorrhagic strokes, there were no differences between the two years. Among 591 COVID-19 admissions, 31 (5.24%) patients with stroke including 19 with ischemic (3.21%) and 12 with hemorrhagic stroke (2.03%) were identified. Patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke were significantly younger (58.74 vs 48.11 years,P = .002), predominantly male (68.18% vs 94.74%,P = .016), had lesser vascular risk factors, had more severe clinical presentation (NIHSS 7.01 vs 17.05,P < .001), and higher rate of LVO (23.6% vs. 63.1%,P = .006). There was no difference in the rate of endovascular thrombectomy, but time to groin puncture was significantly longer in COVID-19 patients (83.41 vs 129.50 minutes,P = .003). For hemorrhagic stroke, COVID-19 patients did not differ from non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke continues to occur during this pandemic and stroke pathways have been affected by the pandemic. Stroke occurs in approximately 5% of patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 associated ischemic stroke occurs in predominantly male patients who are younger, with fewer vascular risk factors, can be more severe, and have higher rates of LVO. Despite an increase in LVO during the pandemic, treatment with mechanical thrombectomy has not increased. COVID-19 associated hemorrhagic stroke does not differ from non-COVID-19 hemorrhagic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Survival Rate , Thrombectomy , United Arab Emirates
3.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(12): 2263-2268, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732924

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms and phenotype of ischemic stroke associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. A retrospective study was conducted in patients with COVID-19 presenting with ischemic stroke from March 1 to May 25, 2020, and cases with large-vessel occlusion were identified. To provide baseline institutional stroke data within and outside the COVID-19 pandemic, all consecutive ischemic stroke and TIA admissions (COVID and non-COVID) to the hospital during a 10-week period from March 1 to May 10, 2020, were collected and compared with data from the same time period in 2019. Among 20 patients with COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke, 15 (75%) had large-vessel occlusion. These patients were young (mean age, 46.5 years), male (93%), without major burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and had a severe stroke presentation. Large-vessel occlusions were observed in multiple vessels (40%), uncommonly affected vessels, and atypical locations with a large thrombus burden. Systemic thrombosis separate from large-vessel occlusion was not uncommon (26%). At short-term follow-up, stroke etiology remained undetermined in 46% of patients and functional outcome was poor. The above findings raise the possibility of stroke related to mechanisms induced by the COVID-19 infection itself, including a hypercoagulable state and/or endothelial damage. In addition, they document the severe presentation and poor outcomes of large-vessel occlusion in COVID-19 ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/pathology , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104938, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center. CONCLUSION: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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