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1.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.11.17.567633

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, increasing in its potential for greater transmissibility and immune escape, updated vaccines are needed to boost adaptive immunity to protect against COVID-19 caused by circulating strains. Here, we report features of the monovalent Omicron XBB.1.5-adapted BNT162b2 vaccine, which contains the same mRNA backbone as the original BNT162b2 vaccine, modified by the incorporation of XBB.1.5-specific sequence changes in the encoded prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S(P2)). Biophysical characterization of Omicron XBB.1.5 S(P2) demonstrated that it maintains a prefusion conformation that adopts a flexible and predominantly open one-RBD-up state, with high affinity binding to the human ACE-2 receptor. When administered as a 4th dose in BNT162b2-experienced mice, the monovalent Omicron XBB.1.5 vaccine elicited substantially higher serum neutralizing titers against pseudotyped viruses of Omicron XBB.1.5, XBB.1.16, XBB.1.16.1, XBB.2.3, EG.5.1 and HV.1 sublineages and the phylogenetically distant BA.2.86 lineage than the bivalent Wild Type + Omicron BA.4/5 vaccine. Similar trends were observed against Omicron XBB sublineage pseudoviruses when the vaccine was administered as a 2-dose primary series in naive mice. Strong S-specific Th1 CD4+ and IFN{gamma}+ CD8+ T cell responses were also observed. These findings, together with prior experience with variant-adapted vaccine responses in preclinical and clinical studies, suggest that the monovalent Omicron XBB.1.5-adapted BNT162b2 vaccine is anticipated to confer protective immunity against dominant SARS-CoV-2 strains. ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARYThe monovalent Omicron XBB.1.5-adapted BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine encodes a prefusion-stabilized spike immunogen that elicits more potent neutralizing antibody responses against homologous XBB.1.5 and other circulating sublineage pseudoviruses compared to the bivalent Wild Type + Omicron BA.4/5 BNT162b2 vaccine, thus demonstrating the importance of annual strain changes to the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
2.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.09.07.23295194

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 but require boosting to maintain protection. Changes to circulating variants and prevalent natural immunity may impact on real-world effectiveness of boosters in different time periods and in different populations. Methods: With NHS England approval, we used linked routine clinical data from >24 million patients to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2022 combined COVID-19 autumn booster and influenza vaccine campaign in non-clinically vulnerable 50-year-olds in England using a regression discontinuity design. Our primary outcome was a composite of 6-week COVID-19 emergency attendance, COVID-19 unplanned hospitalisation, or death. The secondary outcomes were: respiratory hospitalisations or death; any unplanned hospitalisation; and any death. Results: Our study included 1,917,375 people aged 45-54 years with no evidence of being in a high-risk group prioritised for vaccination. By 26 November 2022, booster vaccine coverage was 11.1% at age 49.75 years increasing to 39.7% at age 50.25 years. The estimated effect of the campaign on the risk of the primary outcome in 50-year-olds during weeks 7-12 after the campaign start was -0.4 per 100,000 (95% CI -7.8, 7.1). For the secondary outcomes the estimated effects were: -0.6 per 100,000 (95%CI -13.5, 12.3) for respiratory outcomes; 5.0 per 100,000 (95%CI -40.7, 50.8) for unplanned hospitalisations; and 3.0 per 100,000 (95%CI -2.7, 8.6) for any death. The results were similar when using different follow-up start dates, different bandwidths, or when estimating the effect of vaccination (rather than the campaign). Conclusion: This study found little evidence that the autumn 2022 vaccination campaign in England was associated with a reduction in severe COVID-19-related outcomes among non-clinically vulnerable 50-year-olds. Possible explanations include the low risk of severe outcomes due to substantial pre-existing vaccine- and infection-induced immunity. Modest booster coverage reduced the precision with which we could estimate effectiveness. The booster campaign may have had effects beyond those estimated, including reducing virus transmission and incidence of mild or moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Death
3.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3161655.v1

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2, is the causative agent of COVID-19, a disease that was declared a pandemic by the WHO, at the beginning of 2020. Various authors have pointed out that morbidity and mortality, as well as the economic consequences of a pandemic, are influenced by factors such as the susceptibility of the population to infection, the severity of the disease, transmissibility and routes of transmission. It was of particular interest in this work to focus on the last two aspects, and, more specifically, on indirect transmission through contact with the back of the hand, highlighting the importance of this site during the transmission process of SARS-CoV- 2. The expression, as well as the functionality of the ACE-2 receptors on the back of the hand was demonstrated by immunohistochemical techniques, and the implications of these findings in the indirect transmission of the virus were discussed. We conclude that contact with the skin, for example, through the fist salute, contributes to the increase in infections, in such a way that we suggest that this practice be avoided as a protection measure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
4.
Mobilities ; 18(3):408-424, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20232698

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we examine transborder commuters' experiences (i.e. individuals who commute between U.S. and Mexican border cities frequently) during the Covid-19 pandemic, with keen attention to the links between racial capitalism and temporality. We address two interrelated issues: first, we unpack how the United States framed the pandemic through the metaphor of war and the production of the categories of 'essential work(er)' and 'essential travel' to ensure racial capitalism's surplus labor and continuation. These categories function like a double-edged sword, tying racialized populations to racial capitalism's temporality to exploit them while excluding privileged others. We argue that Covid-19's temporality conflicts with racial capitalism's temporality. While the former relies on the deceleration of everyday life, the latter depends on constant acceleration driven by profit-seeking. Using queer and feminist theoretical lenses, we then demonstrate how U.S. Covid-19 border restrictions at land ports of entry exacerbated transborder commuters' cross-border travels and privileged some based on legal status. As a result, they used public Facebook groups to navigate and comprehend new commuting conditions, disidentifying with the United States' official pandemic framing and producing their own. This shared experience catalyzed 'digital transborder kinships' or temporally-bound socialities rooted in relational care, advocacy, and knowledge production. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mobilities is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore current practice and interregional differences in the treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). We triangulated these observations considering countries' Gross National Income (GNI), disease subtypes, and symptoms using patient-reported information. METHODS: A cross-sectional ancillary analysis of the "COVID-19 vaccination in auto-immune disease" (COVAD) e-survey containing demographic characteristics, IIM subtypes (dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion-body myositis (IBM), anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), overlap myopathies (OM)), current symptoms (surrogate for organ involvement), and treatments (corticosteroids (CS), immunomodulators (IM), i.e., antimalarials, immunosuppressants (IS), intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), biological treatments, and targeted-synthetic small molecules). Treatments were presented descriptively according to continents, GNI, IIM, and organ involvement, and associated factors were analyzed using multivariable binary logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of 18,851 respondents from 94 countries, 1,418 with IIM were analyzed (age 61 years, 62.5% females). DM (32.4%), IBM (24.5%), and OM (15.8%) were the most common subtypes. Treatment categories included IS (49.4%), CS (38.5%), IM (13.8%), and IVIG (9.4%). Notably, treatments varied across regions, GNI categories (IS mostly used in higher-middle income, IM in lower-middle income, IVIG and biologics largely limited to high-income countries), IIM subtypes (IS and CS associated with ASSD, IM with OM and DM, IVIG with IMNM, and biological treatments with OM and ASSD) and disease manifestations (IS and CS with dyspnea). Most inter-regional treatment disparities persisted after multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We identified marked regional treatment disparities in a global cohort of IIM. These observations highlight the need for international consensus-driven management guidelines considering patient-centered care and available resources.

6.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3085268.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to determine the association between a major romantic breakup and suicidal ideation in medical students from three universities in Peru.  Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the first pandemic wave in 2021 on medical students from three universities in northern Peru. The outcome was suicidal ideation, measured with question nine of the PHQ-9. The exposure was the experience of a major love breakup during the pandemic. In addition, its association with other covariates (age, sex, family members infected with COVID-19, deceased family members with COVID-19, insomnia, and anxiety, among others) was examined.  Results and discussions: Out of 370 students, 19.5% reported a major love breakup during the pandemic (95%CI: 15.5–23.8), and 34.3% had suicidal ideation (95%CI: 29.4–39.4). Having a major love breakup was associated with a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (PR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.32–1.67). Moderate insomnia (PR: 2.56, 95%CI: 1.70–3.87) and anxiety symptoms (PR: 1.94, 1.10–3.44) were also associated with suicidal ideation.  Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of a significant association between a major love breakup and suicidal ideation. This finding emphasizes the need for further research to better understand this association and inform the development of effective suicide prevention policies in medical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety Disorders
8.
Rheumatol Int ; 43(9): 1637-1649, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236264

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) confer a significant risk of disability and poor quality of life, though fatigue, an important contributing factor, remains under-reported in these individuals. We aimed to compare and analyze differences in visual analog scale (VAS) scores (0-10 cm) for fatigue (VAS-F) in patients with IIMs, non-IIM systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs), and healthy controls (HCs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the data from the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) international patient self-reported e-survey. The COVAD survey was circulated from December 2020 to August 2021, and details including demographics, COVID-19 history, vaccination details, SAID details, global health, and functional status were collected from adult patients having received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose. Fatigue experienced 1 week prior to survey completion was assessed using a single-item 10 cm VAS. Determinants of fatigue were analyzed in regression models. Six thousand nine hundred and eighty-eight respondents (mean age 43.8 years, 72% female; 55% White) were included in the analysis. The overall VAS-F score was 3 (IQR 1-6). Patients with IIMs had similar fatigue scores (5, IQR 3-7) to non-IIM SAIDs [5 (IQR 2-7)], but higher compared to HCs (2, IQR 1-5; P < 0.001), regardless of disease activity. In adjusted analysis, higher VAS-F scores were seen in females (reference female; coefficient -0.17; 95%CI -0.21 to -13; P < 0.001) and Caucasians (reference Caucasians; coefficient -0.22; 95%CI -0.30 to -0.14; P < 0.001 for Asians and coefficient -0.08; 95%CI -0.13 to 0.30; P = 0.003 for Hispanics) in our cohort. Our study found that patients with IIMs exhibit considerable fatigue, similar to other SAIDs and higher than healthy individuals. Women and Caucasians experience greater fatigue scores, allowing identification of stratified groups for optimized multidisciplinary care and improve outcomes such as quality of life.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Myositis , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Adult , Animals , Humans , Female , Male , Quality of Life , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fatigue/etiology
9.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 2023 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is essential to mitigate the personal, social and global impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as we move from a pandemic to an endemic phase. Vaccines are now required that offer broad, long-lasting immunological protection from infection in addition to protection from severe illness and hospitalisation. Here we present a review of the evidence base for a new COVID-19 vaccine, PHH-1V (Bimervax®; HIPRA HUMAN HEALTH S.L.U), and the results of an expert consensus. METHODS: The expert committee consisted of Spanish experts in medicine, family medicine, paediatrics, immunology, microbiology, nursing, and veterinary medicine. Consensus was achieved using a 4-phase process consisting of a face-to-face meeting during which the scientific evidence base was reviewed, an online questionnaire to elicit opinions on the value of PHH-1V, a second face-to-face update meeting to discuss the evolution of the epidemiological situation, vaccine programmes and the scientific evidence for PHH-1V and a final face-to-face meeting at which consensus was achieved. RESULTS: The experts agreed that PHH-1V constitutes a valuable novel vaccine for the development of vaccination programmes aimed towards protecting the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. Consensus was based on evidence of broad-spectrum efficacy against established and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, a potent immunological response, and a good safety profile. The physicochemical properties of the PHH-1V formulation facilitate handling and storage appropriate for global uptake. CONCLUSIONS: The physicochemical properties, formulation, immunogenicity and low reactogenic profile of PHH-1V confirm the appropriateness of this new COVID-19 vaccine.

10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 302: 521-525, 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321585

ABSTRACT

With the advent of SARS-CoV-2, several studies have shown that there is a higher mortality rate in patients with diabetes and, in some cases, it is one of the side effects of overcoming the disease. However, there is no clinical decision support tool or specific treatment protocols for these patients. To tackle this issue, in this paper we present a Pharmacological Decision Support System (PDSS) providing intelligent decision support for COVID-19 diabetic patient treatment selection, based on an analysis of risk factors with data from electronic medical records using Cox regression. The goal of the system is to create real world evidence including the ability to continuously learn to improve clinical practice and outcomes of diabetic patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Electronic Health Records , Risk Factors
12.
Journal of psychiatric research ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2314742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of the youngest, worsening their emotional well-being. The demand for care in psychiatric emergencies may indirectly reflect the mental health state of children and adolescents and the emotional consequences of the pandemic. Moreover, suicidality can be considered a marker of severity in this population group. Therefore, we have aimed to longitudinally describe the number of children and adolescents attended in the psychiatry emergency department due to suicidal ideation or attempts and, to explore differences in suicidality according to gender and age. A retrospective study was carried out in the University Hospital of San Juan, Alicante, Spain, from 01.01.2018 to 31.12.2021. A total of 138 participants under 18 years requesting psychiatric care due to suicidal ideation or attempts were included. The sample was composed by 35% of males and the mean age was 14.8 years old (SD = 2.2). The number of cases per year range from 10 in 2018 to 88 in 2021. Attendances were significantly higher between 2021 and the three previous years. Besides, the number of attentions registered in the last 9 months of 2021 equals those that occurred in the entire previous period. Most of the cases were girls and middle adolescents. Suicide ideation or attempts have skyrocketed in children and adolescents. This alarming increase presents a one-year lag peak from the COVID-19 outbreak and continues until the end of 2021. Girls and those over 12 years have been identified as risk groups to present suicidal ideation or attempts.

13.
iScience ; 26(6): 106873, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313989

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic posed a global health crisis, with new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants weakening vaccine-driven protection. Trained immunity could help tackle COVID-19 disease. Our objective was to analyze whether heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis (hkMm), an environmental mycobacterium, induces trained immunity and confers protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. To this end, THP-1 cells and primary monocytes were trained with hkMm. The increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and IL-10, metabolic activity, and changes in epigenetic marks suggested hkMm-induced trained immunity in vitro. Healthcare workers at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled into the MANRECOVID19 clinical trial (NCT04452773) and were administered Nyaditum resae (NR, containing hkMm) or placebo. No significant differences in monocyte inflammatory responses or the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were found between the groups, although NR modified the profile of circulating immune cell populations. Our results show that M. manresensis induces trained immunity in vitro but not in vivo when orally administered as NR daily for 14 days.

14.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 80(2): 105-114, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in children is usually mild, they need hospitalization and intensive care in exceptional cases. Adverse outcomes have been observed mainly among children with comorbidities, justifying their vaccination. This study aimed to assess the risk of hospitalization and death in Mexican children and adolescents with COVID-19 and comorbidities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 366,542 confirmed COVID-19 cases under 18 years, reported by the Mexican Ministry of Health up to July 9, 2022. Logistic regression models were performed. RESULTS: The mean age was 10.98 years, 50.6% were male, and 7.3% reported at least one comorbidity. The percentage of hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients with and without comorbidities was 3.52%, and 0.20%, respectively; children with comorbidities presented a higher percentage of hospitalization (14.0%) and death (1.9%). The probability of hospitalization was 5.6 times greater in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and comorbidities, and the comorbidities that showed the greatest risk were immunosuppression (odds ratio (OR) 22.06), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (11.36), and cardiovascular diseases (5.66). The probability of death in patients with comorbidities was 11.01 times higher than in those without diseases, and the highest risk was observed in those with CKD (OR 12.57), cardiovascular diseases (6.87), and diabetes (5.83). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with comorbidities presented a higher risk of severe COVID-19. It is suggested that vaccination should be promoted with greater emphasis on pediatric patients with comorbidities.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Aunque COVID-19 (enfermedad por coronavirus 2019) en niños es usualmente leve, en casos excepcionales requieren hospitalización y cuidados intensivos. Los resultados adversos han sido observados principalmente en los niños con comorbilidades, justificando su vacunación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de hospitalización y muerte en niños y adolescentes mexicanos con COVID-19 y comorbilidades. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en 366,542 casos de COVID-19 confirmados, menores de 18 años y reportados por la Secretaría de Salud de México, hasta el 9 de julio del 2022. Se ejecutaron modelos multivariados de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad fue de 10.98 años, 50.6% de sexo masculino, y 7.3% reportaron al menos una comorbilidad. El porcentaje de hospitalización y muerte en pacientes con COVID-19 sin comorbilidades fue 3.52% y 0.20%, respectivamente; mientras que los pacientes con comorbilidades presentaron más elevados porcentajes de hospitalización (14.0%) y muerte (1.9%). La probabilidad de hospitalización fue 5.6 veces más en los pacientes con COVID-19 y comorbilidades, comparando con aquellos sin comorbilidades. Las comorbilidades que mostraron más riesgo fueron inmunosupresión (razón de momios (RM) 22.06), enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) (RM 11.36) y enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 5.66). La probabilidad de muerte en los pacientes con comorbilidades fue 11.01 veces más que en aquellos sin enfermedades, y fue más elevado en aquellos con ERC (RM 12.57), enfermedades cardiovasculares (RM 6.87) y diabetes (RM 5.83). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes pediátricos con comorbilidades presentaron mayor riesgo de COVID-19 severo, por lo que se sugiere promover con mayor énfasis la vacunación en ellos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Comorbidity , Hospitalization
15.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 40(2): 75-84, 2023.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between HDL-cholesterol and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in over 75-year-olds residing in the Community of Madrid. METHODS: Study of a population-based cohort, composed of all residents in Madrid (Spain) born before January 1, 1945 and alive on December 31, 2019. Demographic, clinical and analytical data were obtained from primary care electronic medical records from January 2015. Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as a positive RT-PCR or antigen test result. Infection data correspond to the period March 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 593,342 cohort participants, 501,813 had at least one HDL-cholesterol determination in the past 5 years. Their mean age was 83.4±5.6 years and 62.4% were women. A total of 36,996 (7.4%) had a confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection during 2020. The risk of infection [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] for SARS-CoV2 according to increasing quintiles of HDL-cholesterol was 1, 0.960 (0.915-1.007), 0.891 (0.848-0.935), 0.865 (0.824-0.909) and 0.833 (0.792-0.876), after adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse and dose-dependent relationship between HDL-cholesterol concentration and the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection in subjects aged over 75 years of age in the Community of Madrid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cholesterol, HDL , RNA, Viral , Heart Disease Risk Factors
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(5): 685-693, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315495

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccines were developed and rigorously evaluated in randomized trials during 2020. However, important questions, such as the magnitude and duration of protection, their effectiveness against new virus variants, and the effectiveness of booster vaccination, could not be answered by randomized trials and have therefore been addressed in observational studies. Analyses of observational data can be biased because of confounding and because of inadequate design that does not consider the evolution of the pandemic over time and the rapid uptake of vaccination. Emulating a hypothetical "target trial" using observational data assembled during vaccine rollouts can help manage such potential sources of bias. This article describes 2 approaches to target trial emulation. In the sequential approach, on each day, eligible persons who have not yet been vaccinated are matched to a vaccinated person. The single-trial approach sets a single baseline at the start of the rollout and considers vaccination as a time-varying variable. The nature of the confounding depends on the analysis strategy: Estimating "per-protocol" effects (accounting for vaccination of initially unvaccinated persons after baseline) may require adjustment for both baseline and "time-varying" confounders. These issues are illustrated by using observational data from 2 780 931 persons in the United Kingdom aged 70 years or older to estimate the effect of a first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Addressing the issues discussed in this article should help authors of observational studies provide robust evidence to guide clinical and policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Vaccination
17.
JAMA ; 328(24): 2446-2447, 2022 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315319

ABSTRACT

This Guide to Statistics and Methods describes the use of target trial emulation to design an observational study so it preserves the advantages of a randomized clinical trial, points out the limitations of the method, and provides an example of its use.


Subject(s)
Causality , Observational Studies as Topic , Research Design , Comparative Effectiveness Research
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 vaccines have a favorable safety profile in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) such as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), however hesitancy continues to persist among these patients.Therefore, we studied the prevalence, predictors, and reasons for hesitancy in patients with IIMs, other AIRDs, non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases (nrAIDs) and healthy controls (HCs), using data from the two international COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) e-surveys. METHODS: The 1st and 2nd COVAD patient self-reported e-surveys were circulated from March to December 2021, and February to June 2022 (ongoing). We collected data on demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 infection and vaccination history, reasons for hesitancy, and patient reported outcomes. Predictors of hesitancy were analyzed using regression models in different groups. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 18,882 (COVAD-1) and 7666 (COVAD-2) respondents. Reassuringly, hesitancy decreased from 2021 (16.5%) to 2022 (5.1%) [OR 0.26; 95%CI: 0.24-0.30, p < 0.001]. However, concerns/fear over long-term safety had increased [OR 3.6;95% CI:2.9-4.6, p < 0.01].We noted with concern greater skepticism over vaccine science among patients with IIMs than AIRDs [OR:1.8; 95%CI: 1.08-3.2, p = 0.023] and HCs [OR: 4; 95%CI: 1.9-8.1, p < 0.001], as well as more long-term safety concerns/fear [IIMs vs AIRDs; OR: 1.9; 95%CI: 1.2-2.9, p = 0.001; IIMs vs HCs; OR: 5.4 95%CI: 3-9.6), p < 0.001].Caucasians [OR 4.2 (1.7-10.3)] were likely to be more hesitant, while those with better PROMIS physical health score were less hesitant [OR 0.9 (0.8-0.97)]. CONCLUSION: Vaccine hesitancy has decreased from 2021 to 2022, long-term safety concerns remain among patients with IIMs, particularly in Caucasians and those with poor physical function.

20.
Partecipazione e Conflitto ; 16(1):63-86, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2302759

ABSTRACT

The housing movement that emerged in Spanish cities during the 2007–8 global financial crisis has undergone various mutations. If at first it was led by the anti-evictions fight of the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH) and the housing groups of the 15M mobilization cycle (2011–14), the successive rent crises since 2013 and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020–22) have given rise to new activist expressions—housing/neighborhood unions (sindicats d'habitatge / de barri) and a tenants' union—in metropolitan areas such as Barcelona. These have played a central role in housing organizing during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article we investigate the development of the housing/neighborhood unions while understanding their relationships with other housing groups in Barcelona. We first aim to know if, how, and why they have adopted, modified, or replaced the protest repertoires used by the PAH and the tenants' union and, second, to what extent the local housing movement in Barcelona evolved into a more diverse and multi-pronged configuration. Our findings indicate significant divergences between these housing organizations but also a common and complementary field of activism that eventually proved to be resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

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