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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322800

ABSTRACT

Background: In severe cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with alveolar tissue injury occurs. However, the time course and specific contributions of alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 ARDS remain unclear. Methods: : We evaluated the levels of a circulating alveolar epithelial injury marker (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products: sRAGE) and an endothelial injury marker (angiopoietin-2: ANG-2), along with an alveolar permeability indicator (surfactant protein D: SP-D) in 107 serum samples from nine patients with ARDS and eight without ARDS, all with COVID-19, admitted to Yokohama City University Hospital from January to July 2020. We compared the initial levels of these markers between ARDS and non-ARDS patients, and analysed the temporal changes of these markers in ARDS patients. Results: : All the initial levels of sRAGE (median: 2680 pg/mL, IQR:1522–5076 vs. median 701 pg/mL, IQR:344–1148.0, p=0.0152), ANG-2 (median: 699 pg/mL, IQR: 410-2501 vs. median: 231 pg/mL, IQR: 64-584, p=0.0464), and SP-D (median: 17542 pg/mL, IQR: 7423-22979 vs. 1771 pg/mL, IQR: 458-204, p=0.0274) were significantly higher in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients. The peak sRAGE level in the ARDS patients was observed at the very early phase of disease progression (median: day 1, IQR: day 1–3.5). However, the peaks of ANG-2 (median: day 4, IQR: day 2.5–6) and SPD (median: day 5, IQR: day 3–7.5) were observed at a later phase. Moreover, the ANG-2 level was significantly correlated with the arterial oxygenation (p=0.030) and the SPD level (p=0.002), but the sRAGE level was not. Conclusion: Evaluation of circulating markers confirms that COVID-19 ARDS is characterised by severe alveolar tissue injury. Our data indicate that the endothelial injury, which continues for a longer period than the epithelial injury, seems to be the main contributor to alveolar barrier disruption. Targeting the endothelial injury may, thus, be a promising approach to overcome ARDS with COVID-19.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab626, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650181

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits varying degrees of protective immunity conferred by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). In this study, we report the persistence of nAb responses over 12 months after infection despite their decreasing trend noticed from 6 months. Methods: The study included sera from 497 individuals who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and August 2020. Samples were collected at 6 and 12 months after onset. The titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G to the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The nAb titer was determined using lentivirus-based pseudovirus or authentic virus. Results: Antibody titers of NP-IgG, RBD-IgG, and nAbs were higher in severe and moderate cases than in mild cases at 12 months after onset. Although the nAb levels were likely to confer adequate protection against wild-type viral infection, the neutralization activity to recently circulating variants in some of the mild cases (~30%) was undermined, implying the susceptibility to reinfection with the variants of concerns (VOCs). Conclusions: Coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent individuals have robust humoral immunity even at 12 months after infection albeit that the medical history and background of patients could affect the function and dynamics of antibody response to the VOCs.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 661187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241181

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is scarce evidence regarding the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibodies among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. This study determined neutralizing antibody titers (NT50) and antibodies against spike protein (SP) or nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens approximately 6 months after the diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: COVID-19 survivors in Japan were recruited. Serum samples and data related to patients' characteristics and COVID-19 history were collected. NT50 and titers of antibodies against NP and SP antigens were measured at 20-32 weeks after the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results. Factors associated with NT50 were identified using the multivariable linear regression and the correlations among NT50 and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total immunoglobulins (Igs) against NP and SP were assessed by Spearman's correlation. Results: Among 376 participants (median [range] days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, 180 (147-224); median [range] years of age, 50 (20-78); 188 [50%] male), most tested positive for NT50 (n = 367, 98%), SP-IgG (n = 344, 91%), SP-total Ig (n = 369, 98%), NP-IgG (n = 314, 84%), and NP-total Ig (n = 365, 97%). Regression analysis indicated that higher BMI, fever, and the requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly associated with higher NT50. Anti-SP antibodies correlated moderately with NT50 (Spearman's correlation: 0.63 for SP IgG; 0.57 for SP-total Ig), while the correlation was weak for anti-NP antibodies (0.37 for NP IgG; 0.32 for NP-total Ig). Conclusions: Most COVID-19 survivors had sustained neutralizing antibodies and tested positive for SP-total Ig and NP-total Ig approximately 6 months after infection.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 628281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Serological tests for COVID-19 have been instrumental in studying the epidemiology of the disease. However, the performance of the currently available tests is plagued by the problem of variability. We have developed a high-throughput serological test capable of simultaneously detecting total immunoglobulins (Ig) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike protein (SP) and report its performance in detecting COVID-19 in clinical samples. METHODS: We designed and prepared reagents for measuring NP-IgG, NP-Total Ig, SP-IgG, and SP-Total Ig (using N-terminally truncated NP (ΔN-NP) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen) dedicated automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer AIA-CL1200. After determining the basal thresholds based on 17 sera obtained from confirmed COVID-19 patients and 600 negative sera, the clinical validity of the assay was evaluated using independent 202 positive samples and 1,000 negative samples from healthy donors. RESULTS: All of the four test parameters showed 100% specificity individually (1,000/1,000; 95%CI, 99.63-100). The sensitivity of the assay increased proportionally to the elapsed time from symptoms onset, and all the tests achieved 100% sensitivity (153/153; 95%CI, 97.63-100) after 13 days from symptoms onset. NP-Total Ig was the earliest to attain maximal sensitivity among the other antibodies tested. CONCLUSION: Our newly developed serological testing exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity after 13 days from symptoms onset. Hence, it could be used as a reliable method for accurate detection of COVID-19 patients and to evaluate seroprevalence and possibly for surrogate assessment of herd immunity.

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