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World J Gastroenterol ; 27(36): 6039-6052, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448960


The global social, economic and political crises related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presumably had more indirect than direct negative impacts on health systems. Drastic lifestyle changes, social isolation and distancing, and individual and global financial crises resulted in robust populations forfeiting healthy habits and seeking comfort in alcoholic beverages, drugs and unhealthy diets. The inevitable consequences are increases in the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, acute alcoholic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis decompensation and ultimately liver-related mortality. The inaccessibility of regular clinical and sonographic monitoring systems has caused difficulties in the treatment of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and has prevented prompt hepatocellular carcinoma detection and treatment. A dramatic reduction in the number of liver donors and the transformation of numerous transplantation centers into COVID-19 units drastically decreased the rate of orthotopic liver transplantation. The indirect, unavoidable effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the following years have yet to be determined. Substantial efforts in the management of patients with liver disease in order to overcome the inevitable COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality that will follow have yet to be initiated. Several questions regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on liver disease remain. The most important question for general CLD patients is: How will the modification of clinical practice during this pandemic affect the outcomes of CLD patients? This article reviews the influence of COVID-19 on patients with liver disease during the pandemic, with particular emphasis on the disease course associated with pandemic resolution.

COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444271


The COVID-19 pandemic was and still is a global burden with more than 178,000,000 cases reported so far. Although it mainly affects respiratory organs, COVID-19 has many extrapulmonary manifestations, including, among other things, liver injury. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain direct and indirect impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the liver. Studies have shown that around 15-30% of patients with COVID-19 have underlying liver disease, and 20-35% of patients with COVID-19 had altered liver enzymes at admission. One of the hypotheses is reactivation of an underlying liver disease, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Some studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with severe COVID-19 and poor outcome; nevertheless, other studies showed no significant difference between groups in comparing complications and clinical outcomes. Patients with NAFLD may suffer severe COVID-19 due to other comorbidities, especially cardiovascular diseases. The link between NAFLD and COVID-19 is not clear yet, and further studies and research are needed.

COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Biomolecules ; 11(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444095


Analysis of liver biopsy specimens showed that SARS-CoV-2 might have led to liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the role of selected hepatokines and myokines in the development and progression of COVID-19. Seventy patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Irisin, pentraxin 3, fetuin-A, and FGF-21 serum concentrations and biochemical parameters were assessed using an immunoenzymatic method with commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum fetuin-A concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. The serum concentration of FGF-21 was significantly increased in obese COVID-19 patients compared to overweight ones. Moreover, the FGF-21 level was higher in COVID-19 patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome than in patients without metabolic syndrome. PTX3 concentration was higher in COVID-19 patients with higher HOMA-IR values than those with lower HOMA-IR values. COVID-19 patients with HOMA-IR ≤ 3 and >3 had significantly lower fetuin-A levels than the control group. Irisin concentration was significantly decreased in the HOMA-IR ≤ 3 COVID-19 subgroup when comparing with the control group. Lower levels of fetuin-A observed in COVID-19 patients despite higher HOMA-IR, CRP, and ferritin levels, pneumonia, patients requiring ICU care suggests that fetuin-A deficiency predisposes to more severe COVID-19 course. Upregulated pentraxin 3 may be used as a potential predictor of COVID-19 severity.

COVID-19/metabolism , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/deficiency