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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987895

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous cases of monkeypox were reported from several non-endemic countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania, suggesting an unusual and alarming public health issue, particularly considering that the disease is not directly related to human or animal travels. Attention is currently being drawn to this phenomenon since more than 70% of the global population is no longer vaccinated against smallpox. Indeed, the smallpox vaccination also confers some indirect degree of protection against other poxviruses, including monkeypox. We performed a narrative review to describe the existing literature with regard to monkeypox using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. This review aims to provide updated evidence of findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of monkeypox, also considering the concurrent zoonotic pandemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

2.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2230-2236, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777592

ABSTRACT

In March, people living with HIV infection (PLWH) were included in the risk category of fragile people for severe COVID-19 receiving priority access to vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the two doses regimen. The antibodies titer for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated after 21 days since the first administration (Time 1), 1 (Time 2), and 3 (Time 3) months post-vaccination. Information regarding virological and immunological conditions at baseline, previous SARS-CoV-2 state of infection, other immunodeficiencies, current antiretroviral therapy (ART), comorbidities, and severe adverse events (SAE) to vaccination was collected. Six hundred and ninety-seven patients were tested for quantitative anti-spike antibodies at Time 1, 577 patients had a second detection at Time 2, and 491 patients had the third detection. Baseline characteristics of the study population are reported in Table 1. At the time of vaccine administration, all patients were on ART (except one long-term nonprogressor); 632 (90.7%) patients had undetectable HIV-RNA; 12 (1.7%) patients were immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive drugs; 345 (49.5%) patients had at least one COVID-19 related comorbidity and 155 (22.2%) had two or more comorbidities. No SAEs were reported. Final serological results are available for 694 patients after the first dose, 577 and 491 after the second and third ones, respectively; positive titer (values ≥ 50 AU/ml) was demonstrated in 653 (94.1%), 576 (99.8%), 484 (98.6%) patients, respectively. Only one patient was a nonresponder after completing vaccination, who was a newly diagnosed one for HIV infection. All vaccinations were well tolerated, with no SAEs. BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic and safe in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3158-3164, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085668

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the immunological memory and long-time kinetics of immunoglobulin (IgG) against viral nucleoprotein (NP) and spike protein S1 receptor-binding domain (S1RBD) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are lacking. All consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to our Clinic between March 1, 2020, and May 1, 2020, who were tested at hospital admission for anti-S1RBD and anti-NP IgG were enrolled. Serum samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the use of two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results are expressed as optical density measurements at 450 nm (OD450 ). Overall, 111 patients were included; the median (q1-q3) age was 57 (49-73) years, 59 (53%) males. According to disease severity, 31 (28%), 47 (42%), and 33 (30%) patients were considered affected by mild/moderate, severe, and critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, respectively. During hospitalization, patients with the critical disease showed a higher peak value of both anti-NP (median OD450 : 3.66 vs. 3.06 vs. 3.00 respectively, p = .043) and anti-S1RBD IgG (median OD450 : 2.33 vs. 1.6 vs. 0.91, respectively, p < .001). By testing 48 subjects 6 months or above from discharge, a significant decrease of anti-NP IgG was observed (r: -0.5838; p < .0001), whereas anti-S1RBD IgG showed only a modest reduction (r: -0.1507; p = .0647). Accordingly, 10 (21%) and 2 (4%) patients had a negative serological status for anti-NP and anti-S1RBD IgG, respectively; no association with clinical severity was found. IgGs against SARS-CoV-2 persisted several months after discharge, regardless of disease severity, suggesting that vaccination could be a valid strategy to fight the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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