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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4082, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735288


The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a highly infectious RNA virus. A percentage of patients develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after infection, whose symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath and fatigue. Acute and life-threatening respiratory symptoms are experienced by 10-20% of symptomatic patients, particularly those with underlying medical conditions. One of the main challenges in the containment of COVID-19 is the identification and isolation of asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic individuals. A number of molecular assays are currently used to detect SARS-CoV-2. Many of them can accurately test hundreds or even thousands of patients every day. However, there are presently no testing platforms that enable more than 10,000 tests per day. Here, we describe the foundation for the REcombinase Mediated BaRcoding and AmplificatioN Diagnostic Tool (REMBRANDT), a high-throughput Next Generation Sequencing-based approach for the simultaneous screening of over 100,000 samples per day. The REMBRANDT protocol includes direct two-barcoded amplification of SARS-CoV-2 and control amplicons using an isothermal reaction, and the downstream library preparation for Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. This protocol represents a potentially powerful approach for community screening of COVID-19 that may be modified for application to any infectious or non-infectious genome.

COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mass Screening , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Chem Rev ; 121(13): 7398-7467, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243272


RNA nanotechnology is the bottom-up self-assembly of nanometer-scale architectures, resembling LEGOs, composed mainly of RNA. The ideal building material should be (1) versatile and controllable in shape and stoichiometry, (2) spontaneously self-assemble, and (3) thermodynamically, chemically, and enzymatically stable with a long shelf life. RNA building blocks exhibit each of the above. RNA is a polynucleic acid, making it a polymer, and its negative-charge prevents nonspecific binding to negatively charged cell membranes. The thermostability makes it suitable for logic gates, resistive memory, sensor set-ups, and NEM devices. RNA can be designed and manipulated with a level of simplicity of DNA while displaying versatile structure and enzyme activity of proteins. RNA can fold into single-stranded loops or bulges to serve as mounting dovetails for intermolecular or domain interactions without external linking dowels. RNA nanoparticles display rubber- and amoeba-like properties and are stretchable and shrinkable through multiple repeats, leading to enhanced tumor targeting and fast renal excretion to reduce toxicities. It was predicted in 2014 that RNA would be the third milestone in pharmaceutical drug development. The recent approval of several RNA drugs and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines by FDA suggests that this milestone is being realized. Here, we review the unique properties of RNA nanotechnology, summarize its recent advancements, describe its distinct attributes inside or outside the body and discuss potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and material science.

Nanomedicine/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , RNA Stability , RNA/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Thermodynamics