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1.
Diabetes ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847103

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may develop severe outcomes during COVID-19 disease, but their ability to generate an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines remains to be established. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and glycometabolic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in patients with T1D. A total of 375 patients, 326 with T1D and 49 non-diabetics, who received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2) between March and April 2021 at the ASST FBF-Sacco Milan, Italy, were included in this monocentric observational study (NCT04905823). Local and systemic adverse events were reported in both groups after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination without statistical differences between them. While both T1D patients and non-diabetic subjects exhibited a parallel increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2S titers after vaccination, the vast majority of T1D patients (70% and 78% respectively) did not show any increase in the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic response as compared to the robust increased observed in all non-diabetic subjects. A reduced secretion of the T cell-related cytokines IL-2 and TNF-alpha in vaccinated patients with T1D was also observed. No glycometabolic alterations were evident in patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring during follow-up. Administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine is associated with an impaired cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic immune response in T1D patients.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-5, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819747

ABSTRACT

Vaccination toward SARS-CoV-2 reduced mortality and 'boosters' are being implemented. We offer scientific contribution about IgG production in the COVID-19 experienced population. From January 2021 to March 2021, 183 residents and staff from the Elderly Nursing Home "San Giuseppe Moscati" who had received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were enrolled. The antibody response was assessed by the DiaSorin LIAISON-CLIA S1/S2® IgG solution. Cutoff levels for response (>39 BAU/mL) and neutralizing activity (>208 BAU/mL) were derived from DiaSorin official data. Serology was assessed before and after the first vaccination, and 2 weeks and 6 months after the second vaccination. Anti-S IgG in COVID-19 experienced, baseline IgG producers spiked after the first vaccination to median 5044 BAU/mL and decayed at 6 months to 2467.4 BAU/mL. Anti-S IgG in COVID-19 experienced, baseline IgG non-producers spiked after the second vaccination to median 1701.7 BAU/mL and decayed at 6 months to 904.8 BAU/mL. Anti-S IgG in COVID-19 naïve subjects spiked after the second vaccination to median 546 BAU/mL and decayed at 6 months to 319.8 BAU/mL. The differences between sequential timepoint levels in each group were statistically significant (p < .0001). Serology analysis revealed different kinetics between COVID-19 experienced subjects depending on baseline response, possibly predicting different IgG persistence in blood.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827889, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731779

ABSTRACT

It is well established that pregnancy induces deep changes in the immune system. This is part of the physiological adaptation of the female organism to the pregnancy and the immunological tolerance toward the fetus. Indeed, over the three trimesters, the suppressive T regulatory lymphocytes are progressively more represented, while the expression of co-stimulatory molecules decreases overtime. Such adaptations relate to an increased risk of infections and progression to severe disease in pregnant women, potentially resulting in an altered generation of long-lived specific immunological memory of infection contracted during pregnancy. How potent is the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected pregnant women and how long the specific SARS-CoV-2 immunity might last need to be urgently addressed, especially considering the current vaccinal campaign. To address these questions, we analyzed the long-term immunological response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women from delivery to a six-months follow-up. In particular, we investigated the specific antibody production, T cell memory subsets, and inflammation profile. Results show that 80% developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response, comparable with the general population. While IgG were present only in 50% of the asymptomatic subjects, the antibody production was elicited by infection in all the mild-to-critical patients. The specific T-cell memory subsets rebalanced over-time, and the pro-inflammatory profile triggered by specific SARS-CoV-2 stimulation faded away. These results shed light on SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity in pregnant women; understanding the immunological dynamics of the immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 is essential for defining proper obstetric management of pregnant women and fine tune gender-specific vaccinal plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722269

ABSTRACT

We identified the first case in Italy of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant by whole genome sequencing in an Italian subject travelling from Mozambique. Specific mutation profiles deserve further investigations to clarify potential effects on vaccination efficacy. This case highlights the crucial role of rapid and continuous surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variant circulation.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317012

ABSTRACT

An Italian male with no link to China SARS-CoV-2 epidemic presented at Emergency Room with severe respiratory impairment. The RT-PCR on 20th February, 2020, nasopharyngeal swab revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed with viral culture and sequencing. This was the first identified autochthonous SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Italy, that unveiled global pathogen diffusion.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104899, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. The primary outcome was the change in clinical status based on a 7-category ordinal scale (1 = not hospitalised, resuming normal daily activities; 7 = deceased). The 35 patients enrolled from February 23 to March 20, 2020, included 18 in intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 in our infectious diseases ward (IDW). The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. The median follow-up was 39 days (IQR 25-44). At day 28, 14 (82.3 %) patients from IDW were discharged, two were still hospitalized and one died (5.9 %), whereas in ICU 6 (33.3 %) were discharged, 8 (44.4 %) patients died, three (16.7 %) were still mechanically ventilated and one (5.6 %) was improved but still hospitalized. Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively). Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed. Ongoing randomised controlled trials will clarify its real efficacy and safety, who to treat, and when.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Compassionate Use Trials/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood , Treatment Outcome
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1716-1718, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302675

ABSTRACT

We present a fatal case of West Nile virus meningoencephalomyelitis initially misdiagnosed as COVID-19 in a 63-year-old Egyptian woman with a previous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient's medical history and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, substantially broadened the differential diagnosis of her encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , West Nile Fever/mortality
10.
J Infect ; 83(2): 237-279, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244767

ABSTRACT

Data are presented of 368/503 post-COVID-19 outpatients followed within the AntiCROWN Cohort who have a one-year control and a baseline assessment of anti-S1/S2 antibodies, detected with the The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG solution by DiaSorin. Loss of response occurred in 4 subjects having a baseline level below 50 AU/mL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Clin Case Rep ; : e04154, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217347

ABSTRACT

An Italian male with no link to China Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic presented at Emergency Room (ER) with severe respiratory impairment. The RT-PCR on 20 February 2020, nasopharyngeal swab revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed with viral culture and sequencing. This was the first identified autochthonous SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Italy, that unveiled global pathogen diffusion. This clinical case highlights an underestimation of SARS-CoV-2 circulation, making initial containment measures unfit to face the real situation and delaying the management of potentially affected SARS-CoV-2 patients.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1752-1757, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196461

ABSTRACT

The first identification of autochthonous transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy was documented by the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Virology and Bioemergencies of L. Sacco Hospital (Milano, Italy) on 20th February 2020 in a 38 years old male patient, who was found positive for pneumonia at the Codogno Hospital. Thereafter Lombardy has reported the highest prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the country, especially in Milano, Brescia and Bergamo provinces. The aim of this study was to assess the potential presence of different viral clusters belonging to the six main provinces involved in Lombardy COVID-19 cases in order to highlight peculiar province-dependent viral characteristics. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 20 full length genomes obtained from patients addressing to several Lombard hospitals from February 20th to April 4th, 2020, aligned with 41 Italian viral genome assemblies available on GISAID database as of 30th March, 2020: two main monophyletic clades, containing 8 and 53 isolates, respectively, were identified. Noteworthy, Bergamo isolates mapped inside the small clade harbouring M gene D3G mutation. The molecular clock analysis estimated a cluster divergence approximately one month before the first patient identification, supporting the hypothesis that different SARS-CoV-2 strains had spread worldwide at different times, but their presence became evident only in late February along with Italian epidemic emergence. Therefore, this epidemiological reconstruction suggests that virus initial circulation in Lombardy was ascribable to multiple introduction. The phylogenetic reconstruction robustness, however, will be improved when more genomic sequences are available, in order to guarantee a complete epidemiological surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Phylogeny
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1716-1718, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158425

ABSTRACT

We present a fatal case of West Nile virus meningoencephalomyelitis initially misdiagnosed as COVID-19 in a 63-year-old Egyptian woman with a previous diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient's medical history and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, substantially broadened the differential diagnosis of her encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , West Nile Fever/mortality
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 631-633, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093057

ABSTRACT

This study addressed the case of a patient with prolonged COVID-19 viral shedding, reported by Real-Time PCR, until 71 days from symptom onset. However, viral culture received negative results after 30 days from symptom onset. Therefore, viral culture may be a worthwhile test for patients requiring discharge, in particular for those presenting prolonged viral shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Aged, 80 and over , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5128, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851277

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection during gestation remains unclear. Here, we analyse the viral genome on maternal and newborns nasopharyngeal swabs, vaginal swabs, maternal and umbilical cord plasma, placenta and umbilical cord biopsies, amniotic fluids and milk from 31 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we also test specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses in placentas, and in maternal and umbilical cord plasma. We detect SARS-CoV-2 genome in one umbilical cord blood and in two at-term placentas, in one vaginal mucosa and in one milk specimen. Furthermore, we report the presence of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in one umbilical cord blood and in one milk specimen. Finally, in the three documented cases of vertical transmission, SARS-CoV-2 infection was accompanied by a strong inflammatory response. Together, these data support the hypothesis that in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, while low, is possible. These results might help defining proper obstetric management of COVID-19 pregnant women, or putative indications for mode and timing of delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140911, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641165

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in raw wastewaters has been demonstrated in many countries affected by this pandemic. Nevertheless, virus presence and infectivity in treated wastewaters, but also in the receiving water bodies are still poorly investigated. In this study, raw and treated samples from three wastewater treatment plants, and three river samples within the Milano Metropolitan Area, Italy, were surveyed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by means of real time RT-PCR and infectivity test on culture cells. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in raw, but not in treated wastewaters (four and two samples, respectively, sampled in two dates). The isolated virus genome was sequenced, and belonged to the strain most spread in Europe and similar to another found in the same region. RNA presence in raw wastewater samples decreased after eight days, probably following the epidemiological trend estimated for the area. Virus infectivity was always null, indicating the natural decay of viral pathogenicity in time from emission. Samples from receiving rivers (three sites, sampled in the same dates as wastewaters) showed in some cases a positivity to real time RT-PCR, probably due to non-treated, or inefficiently treated discharges, or to the combined sewage overflows. Nevertheless, also for rivers infectivity was null. Risks for public health should be limited, although a precautionary approach to risk assessment is here advocated, giving the preliminary nature of the presented data.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rivers , Waste Water , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613161

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip, an immunochromatographic (ICT) assay for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen on nasopharyngeal specimen, has been developed to identify positive COVID-19 patients allowing prompt clinical and quarantine decisions. In this original research article, we describe the conception, the analytical and clinical performances as well as the risk management of implementing the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip in a diagnostic decision algorithm. Materials and Methods: Development of the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip resulted in a ready-to-use ICT assay based on a membrane technology with colloidal gold nanoparticles using monoclonal antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highly conserved nucleoprotein antigen. Four hundred observations were recorded for the analytical performance study and thirty tests were analyzed for the cross-reactivity study. The clinical performance study was performed in a retrospective multi-centric evaluation on aliquots of 328 nasopharyngeal samples. COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip results were compared with qRT-PCR as golden standard for COVID-19 diagnostics. Results: In the analytical performance study, the reproducibility showed a between-observer disagreement of 1.7%, a robustness of 98%, an overall satisfying user friendliness and no cross-reactivity with other virus-infected nasopharyngeal samples. In the clinical performance study performed in three different clinical laboratories during the ascendant phase of the epidemiological curve, we found an overall sensitivity and specificity of 57.6 and 99.5%, respectively with an accuracy of 82.6%. The cut-off of the ICT was found at CT <22. User-friendliness analysis and risk management assessment through Ishikawa diagram demonstrate that COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip may be implemented in clinical laboratories according to biosafety recommendations. Conclusion: The COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip represents a promising rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay for the first-line diagnosis of COVID-19 in 15 min at the peak of the pandemic. Its role in the proposed diagnostic algorithm is complementary to the currently-used molecular techniques.

18.
Eur J Intern Med ; 76: 36-42, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, targets IL-6 receptors blocking downstream pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6. In preliminary reports it was suggested to be beneficial in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective study we describe clinical characteristics and outcome of 51 patients hospitalized with confirmed and severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with tocilizumab intravenously. All patients had elevated IL-6 plasma level (>40 pg/mL) and oxygen saturation <93% in ambient air. Clinical outcomes, oxygen support, laboratory data and adverse events were collected over a follow-up of 30 days. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (88%) were on high-flow oxygen supplementation, six of whom with invasive ventilation. From baseline to day 7 after tocilizumab we observed a dramatic drop of body temperature and CRP value with a significant increase in lymphocyte count (p<0.001). Over a median follow-up time of 34 days from tocilizumab, 34 patients (67%) showed an improvement in their clinical severity class; 31 were discharged; 17 (33%) showed a worsening of their clinical status, of these 14 died (27%). The mortality rate was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation at baseline (83.3% vs 20% of patients on non-invasive oxygen support; p=0.0001). The most frequent side effects were an increase of hepatic enzymes (29%), thrombocytopenia (14%), and serious bacterial and fungal infections (27%). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab exerts a rapidly beneficial effect on fever and inflammatory markers, although no significant impact on the clinical outcome can be inferred by our results. Critically ill patients seem to have a high risk of serious infections with this drug.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/drug therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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