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Veterinarski Glasnik ; 74(1):1-17, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039613


Background. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been recognized in veterinary virology for a long time and comprise a large group of RNA viruses responsible for enteric, respiratory, hepatic, and neurologic diseases in a variety of animal species and humans. These viruses are very adaptable considering their highly error-prone replication process and recombination ability, resulting in remarkable mutability and efficient expansion of their host range and tissue tropism. Scope and Approach. In the recent past, after the outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, CoVs became a research focus in the scientific community. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raised more questions concerning the threats posed by these viruses. Several significant examples of coronaviruses jumping the species barrier and changing their tropism have been reported in the past, and novel viruses of both animals and humans have appeared as a consequence. This paper reviews some of the examples of CoV mutability and the most notable animal coronaviruses of veterinary relevance. Key Findings and Conclusions. There is still no proof that the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to humans from domestic animals, and its recent cross-species jump is currently being intensively researched. Intensified and diverse human activities that lead to the disruption of ecosystems contribute to the increased risk of contact with animals that might represent virus reservoirs. The need for constant surveillance of CoVs and expanded studies of their virological traits, mutation mechanisms, diversity, prophylactic and therapeutic measures highlight the key role of both veterinarians and medical doctors in order to preserve the health of the human population.

Veterinarski Zurnal Republike Srpske ; 21(1/2):94-106, 2021.
Article in English, Serbian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903815


Today, pets are the source of numerous infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans, as a result of their increasingly frequent contact. The most important viruses with zoonotic potential include rabies and influenza viruses as well as rotaviruses and noroviruses. However, the importance of individual viruses varies depending on the climate and infectious disease control systems in certain countries. Dogs, cats, and other increasingly popular types of pets can transmit bacterial zoonotic agents to humans in various ways. In addition to known pathogens such as the bacteria causing leptospirosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, or brucellosis, the bacteria Pasteurella multocida and Bartonella henselae transmitted by bites or scratches are also significant in human pathology. There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in isolates originating from pets and the transmission of these strains between humans and animals requires special attention. Furthermore, fungi causing diseases such as sporotrichosis or dermatophytosis are linked to long-term and persistent infections in humans. The epidemiological situation caused by SARS-CoV-2, and the assumption of an interspecies jump of this virus from animals to humans, including its documented presence in domestic cats, dogs, tigers, and martens, have raised the question of the possibility of virus transmission from pets to humans. However, the current pandemic is caused exclusively by SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the human population, and these animals are not a source of infection for humans. A significant number of zoonoses originating from pets is a threat to public health, thus requiring the "One Health" approach through close cooperation between human and veterinary medicine to develop and implement effective health measures for both humans and animals. As part of responsible ownership, pet owners must be informed by veterinarians about measures to prevent infectious diseases and certain risks that are related to keeping certain species of animals.

Electronics (Switzerland) ; 10(12), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1266700


Moodle is a widely deployed distance learning platform that provides numerous opportunities to enhance the learning process. Moodle’s importance in maintaining the continuity of education in states of emergency and other circumstances has been particularly demonstrated in the context of the COVID-19 virus’ rapid spread. However, there is a problem with personalizing the learning and monitoring of students’ work. There is room for upgrading the system by applying data mining and different machine-learning methods. The multi-agent Observer system proposed in our paper supports students engaged in learning by monitoring their work and making suggestions based on the prediction of their final course success, using indicators of engagement and machine-learning algorithms. A novelty is that Observer collects data independently of the Moodle database, autonomously creates a training set, and learns from gathered data. Since the data are anonymized, researchers and lecturers can freely use them for purposes broader than that specified for Observer. The paper shows how the methodology, technologies, and techniques used in Observer provide an autonomous system of personalized assistance for students within Moodle platforms. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.