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1.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0096122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053119

ABSTRACT

Omicron (B.1.1.529) is the most recent SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, which emerged in late 2021 and rapidly achieved global predominance by early 2022. In this study, we compared the infection dynamics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 D614G (B.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron BA.1.1 (B.1.1.529) variants in a highly susceptible feline model of infection. Although D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats became lethargic and showed increased body temperatures between days 1 and 3 postinfection (pi), Omicron-inoculated cats remained subclinical and, similar to control animals, gained weight throughout the 14-day experimental period. Intranasal inoculation of cats with D614G- and the Delta variants resulted in high infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions (up to 6.3 log10 TCID50.Ml-1), whereas strikingly lower level of viruses shedding (<3.1 log10 TCID50.Ml-1) was observed in Omicron-inoculated animals. In addition, tissue distribution of the Omicron variant was markedly reduced in comparison to the D614G and Delta variants, as evidenced by lower in situ viral RNA detection, in situ viral immunofluorescence staining, and viral loads in tissues on days 3, 5, and 14 pi. Nasal turbinate, trachea, and lung were the main-but not the only-sites of replication for all three viral variants. However, only scarce virus staining and lower viral titers suggest lower levels of viral replication in tissues from Omicron-infected animals. Notably, while D614G- and Delta-inoculated cats presented pneumonia, histologic examination of the lungs from Omicron-infected cats revealed mild to modest inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate that the Omicron variant BA.1.1 is less pathogenic than D614G and Delta variants in a highly susceptible feline model. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of concern emerged in South Africa late in 2021 and rapidly spread across the world causing a significant increase in the number of infections. Importantly, this variant was also associated with an increased risk of reinfections. However, the number of hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19 did not follow the same trends. These early observations suggested effective protection conferred by immunizations and/or overall lower virulence of the highly mutated variant virus. In this study we present novel evidence demonstrating that the Omicron BA.1.1 variant of concern presents a lower pathogenicity when compared to D614G- or Delta variants in cats. Clinical, virological, and pathological evaluations revealed lower disease severity, viral replication, and lung pathology in Omicron-infected cats when compared with D614G and Delta variant inoculated animals, confirming that Omicron BA.1.1 is less pathogenic in a highly susceptible feline model of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cats , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Virus Replication
2.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115427

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a causative agent of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has resulted in over two million deaths worldwide to date. Diphyllin and diphyllinosides are known as natural blockers of cellular vacuolar ATPases, and so can act as inhibitors of the pH-dependent fusion of viral envelopes with host cell endosomal membranes. Such pH-dependent fusion is a critical early step during the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. Accordingly, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 profiles and cytotoxicities of diphyllin, diphyllinoside cleistanthin B, and two structurally related compounds, helioxanthin 8-1 and helioxanthin 5-4-2, are evaluated here using in vitro cell-based assay systems. Neither helioxanthin exhibits any obvious anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro. By contrast diphyllin and cleistanthin B do exhibit anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in Vero cells, with respective 50% effective concentrations (EC50) values of 1.92 and 6.51 µM. Diphyllin displays anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect also in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cells. Moreover, when diphyllin is added at various times post infection, a significant decrease in viral titer is observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, even at high viral multiplicities of infection. Importantly, neither diphyllin nor cleistanthin B are found cytotoxic to Vero cells in concentrations up to 100 µM. However, the cytotoxic effect of diphyllin is more pronounced in Vero E6 and CaCo-2 cells. Overall, our data demonstrate that diphyllin and diphyllin analogues might be perfected as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in future preclinical studies, most especially if nanomedicine approaches may be invoked to optimize functional drug delivery to virus infected cells.

3.
Cell ; 183(5): 1354-1366.e13, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Clinical features that drive SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in humans include inflammation and thrombosis, but the mechanistic details underlying these processes remain to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate endothelial disruption and vascular thrombosis in histopathologic sections of lungs from both humans and rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. To define key molecular pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in macaques, we performed transcriptomic analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage and peripheral blood and proteomic analyses of serum. We observed macrophage infiltrates in lung and upregulation of macrophage, complement, platelet activation, thrombosis, and proinflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, MX1, IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNFα, and NF-κB. These results suggest a model in which critical interactions between inflammatory and thrombosis pathways lead to SARS-CoV-2-induced vascular disease. Our findings suggest potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thrombosis/complications , Vascular Diseases/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Complement Activation , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Platelet Activation , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Transcriptome , Vascular Diseases/blood , Vascular Diseases/pathology
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