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1.
J Am Coll Health ; 70(3): 691-697, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407169

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study investigated binge drinking in college students with and without disabilities and sexual violence (SV). Participants: This analysis includes 2,113 college students recruited from campus health or counseling centers between 2015 and 2017, aged 18-24. Method: Multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for past month binge drinking days (BDD). Results: Among students with disabilities, 68% endorsed SV, compared with 53% of those without disability. Disability was not significantly associated with BDD; SV was significantly associated with BDD (p < .0001). Students with SV, regardless of disability status, had 1.7- to 2.1-fold greater odds of having 4+ past month BDD. Conclusions: While disability alone is not a risk factor for binge drinking, novel findings include that students with disabilities binge drink at similarly high rates to their nondisabled peers, and are at elevated risk for SV, which is closely associated with binge drinking.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , Disabled Persons , Sex Offenses , Adolescent , Adult , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Humans , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 416, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536370

ABSTRACT

The use of imidacloprid and, to a lesser degree, other neonicotinoid insecticides is widespread in FL (and globally). The moderate to high water solubility and environmental persistence of neonicotinoids allows these compounds to readily enter, and be retained in, water resources where they may harm nontarget organisms and impact biological communities and associated trophic structures negatively. To better understand imidacloprid's chronic long-term exposure potential to aquatic invertebrate communities in FL, grab water samples were collected monthly in 2015 at 77 monitoring stations statewide. Fifty-eight stations (75%), representing 24 of the 25 drainage basins sampled, had detectable concentrations of imidacloprid, with concentrations ranging from 2 to 660 nanograms per liter [ng/L]. Imidacloprid basin medians were found to be correlated with two of six land use categories (urban, transportation, agriculture, and three crop classes) examined; urban (rho = 0.43, p-value = 0.03), and orchards and vineyards (rho 0.49, p-value = 0.01). The resampling of 12 select stations, representing eight basins, between August 2019 and July 2020, for the neonicotinoids acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, showed that (1) median values of imidacloprid continued to exceed the US EPA chronic freshwater Invertebrate Aquatic Life Benchmark (IALB) (10 ng/L), (2) imidacloprid concentration was directly correlated with flow measurements, and (3) while median imidacloprid concentration decreased between the two sampling events (48.5 vs. 34.5 ng/L, p-value = 0.01) differences in event 1 and 2 streamflow regimes and disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic likely affected this outcome. Clothianidin was the only other neonicotinoid found to have values greater than a US EPA IALB, with detections at three stations exceeding the chronic IALB (50 ng/L). This study highlights the challenges associated with limiting neonicotinoids from entering water resources and identifies means to reduce their entry into and persistence within FL water resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insecticides , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Florida , Humans , Insecticides/analysis , Invertebrates , Neonicotinoids/analysis , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Water
4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 859736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509314

ABSTRACT

Background: The specificity of molecular methods for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage is under debate. We propose a procedure for carriage surveillance and vaccine impact studies that increases the accuracy of molecular detection of live pneumococci in polymicrobial respiratory samples. Methods: Culture and qPCR methods were applied to detect pneumococcus and pneumococcal serotypes in 1,549 nasopharyngeal samples collected in the Netherlands (n = 972) and England (n = 577) from 946 toddlers and 603 adults, and in paired oropharyngeal samples collected exclusively from 319 Dutch adults. Samples with no live pneumococci isolated at primary diagnostic culture yet generating signal specific for pneumococcus in qPCRs were re-examined with a second, qPCR-guided culture. Optimal Cq cut-offs for positivity in qPCRs were determined via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using isolation of live pneumococci from the primary and qPCR-guided cultures as reference. Results: Detection of pneumococcus and pneumococcal serotypes with qPCRs in cultured (culture-enriched) nasopharyngeal samples exhibited near-perfect agreement with conventional culture (Cohen's kappa: 0.95). Molecular methods displayed increased sensitivity of detection for multiple serotype carriage, and implementation of qPCR-guided culturing significantly increased the proportion of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples from which live pneumococcus was recovered (p < 0.0001). For paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples from adults none of the methods applied to a single sample type exhibited good agreement with results for primary and qPCR-guided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cultures combined (Cohens kappa; 0.13-0.55). However, molecular detection of pneumococcus displayed increased sensitivity with culture-enriched oropharyngeal samples when compared with either nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal primary cultures (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The accuracy of pneumococcal carriage surveillance can be greatly improved by complementing conventional culture with qPCR and vice versa, by using results of conventional and qPCR-guided cultures to interpret qPCR data. The specificity of molecular methods for the detection of live pneumococci can be enhanced by incorporating statistical procedures based on ROC curve analysis. The procedure we propose for future carriage surveillance and vaccine impact studies improves detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults in particular and enhances the specificity of serotype carriage detection.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 104034, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489231
6.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484435

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in resolving the structures of multi-pass membrane proteins, little is known about the native folding pathways of these complex structures. Using single-molecule magnetic tweezers, we here report a folding pathway of purified human glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) reconstituted within synthetic lipid bilayers. The N-terminal major facilitator superfamily (MFS) fold strictly forms first, serving as a structural template for its C-terminal counterpart. We found polar residues comprising the conduit for glucose molecules present major folding challenges. The endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex facilitates insertion of these hydrophilic transmembrane helices, thrusting GLUT3's microstate sampling toward folded structures. Final assembly between the N- and C-terminal MFS folds depends on specific lipids that ease desolvation of the lipid shells surrounding the domain interfaces. Sequence analysis suggests that this asymmetric folding propensity across the N- and C-terminal MFS folds prevails for metazoan sugar porters, revealing evolutionary conflicts between foldability and functionality faced by many multi-pass membrane proteins.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0077922, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475682

ABSTRACT

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical and other cancers and represents a significant global health burden. HPV vaccines demonstrate excellent efficacy in clinical trials and effectiveness in national immunization programmes against the most prevalent genotype, HPV16. It is unclear whether the greater protection conferred by vaccine-induced antibodies, compared to natural infection antibodies, is due to differences in antibody magnitude and/or specificity. We explore the contribution of the surface-exposed loops of the major capsid protein to antigenic domains recognized by vaccine and natural infection neutralizing antibodies. Chimeric pseudoviruses incorporating individual (BC, DE, EF, FG, HI) or combined (All: BC/DE/EF/FG/HI) loop swaps between the target (HPV16) and control (HPV35) genotypes were generated, purified by ultracentrifugation and characterized by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Neutralizing antibody data were subjected to hierarchical clustering and outcomes modeled on the HPV16 capsomer crystal model. Vaccine antibodies exhibited an FG loop preference followed by the EF and HI loops while natural infection antibodies displayed a more diverse pattern, most frequently against the EF loop followed by BC and FG. Both vaccine and natural infection antibodies demonstrated a clear requirement for multiple loops. Crystal modeling of these neutralizing antibody patterns suggested natural infection antibodies typically target the outer rim of the capsomer while vaccine antibodies target the central ring around the capsomer lumen. Chimeric pseudoviruses are useful tools for probing vaccine and natural infection antibody specificity. These data add to the evidence base for the effectiveness of an important public health intervention. IMPORTANCE The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) major virus coat (capsid) protein is a target for antibodies induced by both natural infection and vaccination. Vaccine-induced immunity is highly protective against HPV16-related infection and disease while natural infection associated immunity significantly less so. For this study, we created chimeric functional pseudoviruses based upon an antigenically distant HPV genotype (HPV35) resistant to HPV16-specific antibodies with inserted capsid surface fragments (external loops) from HPV16. By using these chimeric pseudoviruses in functional neutralization assays we were able to highlight specific and distinct areas on the capsid surface recognized by both natural infection and vaccine induced antibodies. These data improve our understanding of the difference between natural infection and vaccine induced HPV16-specific immunity.

8.
Mark Lett ; : 1-17, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469318

ABSTRACT

Service robots are emerging quickly in the marketplace (e.g., in hotels, restaurants, and healthcare), especially as COVID-19-related health concerns and social distancing guidelines have affected people's desire and ability to interact with other humans. However, while robots can increase efficiency and enable service offerings with reduced human contact, prior research shows a systematic consumer aversion toward service robots relative to human service providers. This potential dilemma raises the managerial question of how firms can overcome consumer aversion and better employ service robots. Drawing on prior research that supports the use of language for building interpersonal relationships, this research examines whether the type of language (social-oriented vs. task-oriented language) a service robot uses can improve consumer responses to and evaluations of the focal service robot, particularly in light of consumers' COVID-19-related stress. The results show that consumers respond more favorably to a service robot that uses a social-oriented (vs. task-oriented) language style, particularly when these consumers experience relatively higher levels of COVID-19-related stress. These findings contribute to initial empirical evidence in marketing for the efficacy of leveraging robots' language style to improve customer evaluations of service robots, especially under stressful circumstances. Overall, the results from two experimental studies not only point to actionable managerial implications but also to a new avenue of research on service robots that examines customer-robot interactions through the lens of language and in contexts that can be stressful for consumers (e.g., healthcare or some financial service settings). Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11002-022-09630-x.

9.
Health Expect ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The capability of consumers and staff may be critical for authentic and effective partnerships in healthcare quality improvement (QI). Capability frameworks describe core knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and behaviours and guide learning and development at individual and organizational levels. OBJECTIVE: To refine a capability framework for successful partnerships in healthcare QI which was coproduced from a scoping review. DESIGN: A two-round eDelphi design was used. The International Expert Panel rated the importance of framework items in supporting successful QI partnerships, and suggested improvements. They also rated implementation options and commented on the influence of context. PARTICIPANTS: Seven Research Advisory Group members were recruited to support the research team. The eDelphi panel included 53 people, with 44 (83%) and 42 (77. 8%) participating in rounds 1 and 2, respectively. They were from eight countries and had diverse backgrounds. RESULTS: The Research Advisory Group and panel endorsed the framework and summary diagram as valuable resources to support the growth of authentic and meaningful partnerships in QI across healthcare contexts, conditions, and countries. A consensus was established on content and structure. Substantial rewording included a stronger emphasis on growth, trust, respect, inclusivity, diversity, and challenging the status quo. The final capability development framework included three domains: Personal Attributes, Relationships and Communication, and Principles and Practices. The Equalizing Decision Making, Power, and Leadership capability was foundational and positioned across all domains. Ten capabilities with twenty-seven capability descriptions were also included. The Principles and Practices domain, Equalizing Decision Making, Power, and Leadership capability, and almost half (44.4%) of the capability descriptions were rated as more important for staff than consumers (p < .01). However, only the QI processes and practices capability description did not meet the inclusion threshold for consumers. Thus, the framework was applicable to staff and consumers. CONCLUSION: The refined capability development framework provides direction for planning and provision of learning and development regarding QI partnerships. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Two consumers were full members of the research team and are coauthors. A Research Advisory Group, inclusive of consumers, guided study execution and translation planning. More than half of the panel were consumers.

10.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435935

ABSTRACT

Importance: A previously reported prediction model included a child's race to estimate risk of urinary tract infection (UTI), but race-conscious medicine encourages investigating how race is likely to be a proxy for other factors that should instead be used for risk prediction. Objectives: To systematically review the available literature to evaluate the robustness of the association between race and UTI and to assess whether other variables could replace race as a variable in a previously developed prediction tool without adversely affecting its accuracy. Data Source: MEDLINE was searched through May 28, 2021. Study Selection: English-language studies that reported data on the prevalence of UTI according to race for children younger than 18 years were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two independent reviewers assessed studies for risk of bias and abstracted data. Random-effects models were used to pool odds ratios, and meta-regression was used to explore heterogeneity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds of UTI among non-Black children vs Black children. Results: Sixteen studies (17 845 children) were included. In the primary analysis, which included 11 studies, the pooled odds ratio of UTI among non-Black children was 2.44-fold higher (95% CI, 1.87-3.20) than among Black children. The corresponding odds ratio in studies with low or very low risk of bias was 4.84-fold higher (95% CI, 3.16-7.41; I2 = 0%) among non-Black children than among Black children. Replacing race with history of UTI and duration of fever resulted in a model with similar accuracy (training cohort: overall sensitivity, 96% [95% CI, 94%-98%]; overall specificity, 35% [95%, 32%-38%]; overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.77-0.82]; validation cohort: overall sensitivity, 97% [95% CI, 90%-100%]; overall specificity, 32% [95% CI, 26%-37%]; overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.77-0.92]). Conclusions and Relevance: Although previous studies suggested that an association between race and UTI exists, because of the issues associated with the inclusion of race in decision models, we replaced the variable of race with history of UTI and duration of fever in a previously developed risk prediction model and found similar accuracy.

11.
J Adolesc ; 94(3): 333-353, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390205

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence and relationship abuse are prevalent among adolescents and programs promoting gender equity, reproductive justice, and healthy relationships are key strategies for prevention. While such "gender transformative" approaches appear promising for boys, they have not been evaluated among girls. This study assessed the feasibility of this community-based program, called Sisterhood 2.0, among girls in socially disadvantaged urban neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. METHODS: This quasi-experimental trial examined feasibility of Sisterhood 2.0 (n = 246), delivered through 8 weekly sessions, assessed through attendance, retention and satisfaction. Participants completed surveys at baseline and end of program assessing other relevant measures. Generalized linear mixed models estimated changes from baseline to follow up comparing intervention to control participants. RESULTS: Eleven neighborhoods were assigned to Sisterhood 2.0 (n = 5 neighborhoods) or job-readiness training (n = 6 neighborhoods). Girls were between the ages of 13 and 19, 8-10th graders (59%), and self-identified as Black (69%). Participants most often attended because they thought the program would be interesting (74%) and returned because of the women teaching the program (71%). Girls reported experiences with physical adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) (30% in both arms), emotional ARA (66% intervention; 56% control), or sexual ARA (11% intervention; 12% control). Physical ARA perpetration was high in both arms (intervention: 47%; control: 46%). Significant intervention effects were observed in recognition of abuse (ß = 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.78). No other significant intervention effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based gender-transformative programming for girls is feasible and may be a promising approach for addressing interpersonal violence and promoting sexual health.


Subject(s)
Sex Offenses , Sexual Health , Adolescent , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Abuse , Sexual Behavior
12.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Examine associations between care seeking reasons in college health and counseling centers and sexual violence (SV). PARTICIPANTS: College students (n = 2,084 baseline, n = 1,170 one-year follow up) participating in a cluster randomized controlled trial of an SV reduction intervention on 28 campuses. METHODS: Computer-based survey data gathered during students' clinic visit and one-year follow up. RESULTS: Despite high prevalence of SV, students almost never sought care specifically for SV (0.5% of reported visits). Gender differences emerged for reasons students sought care generally, but were not associated with differences in care seeking among those who experienced SV. At baseline and one-year, students who reported SV were more likely to state mental or sexual and reproductive health as their reason for care seeking. CONCLUSION: Many students seeking care have experienced SV yet present with other health needs. Providers need to recognize this and have a low threshold for providing SV resources routinely.

13.
J Adv Nurs ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362185

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Reproductive coercion is associated with poor health outcomes in women. This study examined exposure to and use of reproductive coercion and care seeking among college students. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 2291 college students of all genders seeking care in college health and counselling centres as baseline data for a cluster-randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Online surveys were collected (9/2015-3/2017). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Fisher's exact and t-tests were analysed. RESULTS: Among female participants, 3.1% experienced reproductive coercion in the prior 4 months. Experience was associated with older age (p = .041), younger age at first intercourse (p = .004), Black/African American race (p < .001), behaviourally bisexual (p = .005), more lifetime sexual partners (p < .001) and ever pregnant (p = .010). Sexually transmitted infection (p < .001), recent drug use or smoking (p = .018; p = .001), requiring special health equipment (p = .049), poor school performance (p < .001) and all categories of violence (p = <.001-.015) were associated with women's reproductive coercion experience. Participants who experienced reproductive coercion were more likely to seek care for both counselling and healthcare, (p = .022) and sexually transmitted infection (p = .004). Among males, 2.3% reported recent use of reproductive coercion; these participants reported sexual violence perpetration (p = .005), less condom use (p = .003) and more sexual partners than non-perpetrators (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Although reproductive coercion was reported infrequently among college students, those students experiencing it appear to be at risk for poor health and academic outcomes. Health and counselling centres are promising settings to address RC and related health behaviours.

14.
Acad Pediatr ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Children experiencing family violence (child abuse and neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence) are at a particularly elevated risk for compounding challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we interviewed intimate partner violence (IPV) advocates, child protective services (CPS) caseworkers, and IPV and CPS administrators on the needs of children experiencing family violence during the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with IPV advocates, CPS caseworkers, and IPV and CPS administrators. Recruitment occurred through emails to national and state listservs, networks of the study team, and word of mouth. Interviews were completed through Zoom, took 45 to 60 minutes and were audio recorded. We used a mixed deductive-inductive content analysis approach. RESULTS: Fifty-nine IPV advocates, 35 IPV administrators, 21 CPS workers and 16 CPS administrators participated in this study. Four themes emerged from this work. Participants discussed the role of social isolation, school closures, and distance learning on children experiencing family violence. They also noted child custody and visitation challenges, particularly in the context of abusive partners using custody to control IPV survivors and limitations to virtual visitation more broadly. Compounding challenges were described for children from marginalized communities due to structural-level inequities. Collaboration was discussed by participants from both IPV and CPS sectors. CONCLUSION: This study is one of the first to describe the way the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted children experiencing family violence. Future studies should triangulate these results with children, families, and other child-serving providers.

15.
Acad Pediatr ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic school absenteeism is linked to failure to graduate high school and poor health in adulthood. Contextual factors associated with absenteeism may be under-recognized in school and clinical settings. We examined the prevalence of self-reported absenteeism and violence exposure and their association among middle school students with identified risk of trauma. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from a dating violence prevention program. Participants completed surveys identifying lifetime exposure to 10 types of violence and past 30-day absence. Violence exposure and absenteeism were summarized and compared across demographic groups. Generalized linear models examined associations between 1) any history of violence exposure, 2) each type of violence exposure, and 3) summed exposures to different types of violence, and frequent absenteeism (≥2 absences in past 30 days). RESULTS: Of all participants (overall n = 499), 45.5% reported frequent absenteeism and 71.5% reported violence exposure. Any self-reported violence exposure was associated with absenteeism (aRR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.06-1.92). However, no specific type of violence exposure predicted absenteeism. Comparing summed exposures to different types of violence to no violence exposure, exposure to 1 type of violence was associated with absenteeism (aRR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.15-2.20), with no evidence of stronger associations with greater exposure (2-3 types: aRR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.00-1.88; ≥4 types: aRR = 1.31, 95%CI: 0.98-1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Youth in this sample reported both high rates of violence exposure and absenteeism. Prior violence exposure was associated with absenteeism. Resources and contextual support for youth exposed to family or community violence may play a role in school attendance, emphasizing need for trauma-sensitive approaches to absenteeism.

16.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605221080976, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324369

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Experiencing adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) negatively impacts sexual health and influences risk behaviors of adolescent girls. ARA may be associated with more inequitable gender attitudes among girls, a potentially modifiable factor in violence prevention. This study examines the association among gender equitable attitudes, experiences of ARA, and sexual behaviors among girls participating in Sisterhood 2.0, a community-based violence prevention program implemented in low resource neighborhoods. Methods: Data were from baseline surveys collected for Sisterhood 2.0 implemented in Pittsburgh, PA. Participant demographics, gender equitable attitudes, self-efficacy to use condoms with partners, and self-efficacy to select appropriate contraception were assessed. A latent class analysis (LCA) estimated probability of responses to nine indicators, including sexual behavior self-efficacy and violence. Multigroup LCA by grade (9-12) was also estimated and analyses were performed with SAS V9.4. Results: Female-identified adolescents ages 13-19 (n = 246) were primarily Black (75%) and evenly distributed across grade in school. Sixty-five percent reported emotional relationship abuse and 31% reported physical abuse within the previous nine months. A three-class solution was best fitting for the LCA. Experiences of violence were related to less equitable gender attitudes, being sexually active, and lower condom and contraception self-efficacy. Younger participants who were sexual minorities with less educated heads of household had more experiences with ARA and less equitable gender attitudes. Discussion: Gender equitable attitudes were lower in adolescent girls with greater experiences of ARA and worse condom and contraception self-efficacy. Integrating discussions about healthy sexual relationships and gender equity may be salient factors in violence prevention.

17.
Pediatrics ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314863

ABSTRACT

Parent and caregiver intimate partner violence (IPV), to which 1 in 5 children are exposed, has profound health effects for survivors and their children.1-3 The health, economic, and social ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic have created unique challenges for families experiencing IPV, by increasing isolation, decreasing available safe and secure services and spaces (e.g., schools), and compounding pre-existing inequities, especially for families from marginalized communities.4,5 Pediatric healthcare settings play an important role in supporting families experiencing IPV, particularly through developing partnerships with IPV agencies.

18.
World J Surg ; 46(6): 1261-1267, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the demographic and academic characteristics that play a role in enrollment in surgical residency programs as well as any racial or socioeconomic disparities that may exist for medical students entering surgical specialties at the Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (LUC-SSOM). METHODS: Demographic data for 993 medical students graduating between 2013 and 2019 from LUC-SSOM were compared using a series of t tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Students entering surgical residency programs had two times greater odds of coming from a family with a median family income greater than $75,000 than those entering non-surgical residencies (OR 2.19, 95% CI [1.35, 3.53]). Students from disadvantaged backgrounds had 50% decreased odds of going into surgery when compared to those not entering surgery (OR 0.50, 95% CI [0.28, 0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds face more barriers in pursuing surgical subspecialties.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Medicine , Specialties, Surgical , Students, Medical , Career Choice , Humans , Specialties, Surgical/education
19.
Comp Med ; 72(2): 63-77, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272743

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and is linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a debilitating postinfectious polyneuropathy. The immunopathogenesis of GBS involves the generation of antibodies that are cross reactive to C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide and structurally similar peripheral nerve gangliosides. Both the C. jejuni infecting strain and host factors contribute to GBS development. GBS pathogenesis is associated with Th2-mediated responses in patients. Moreover, induction of IgG1 antiganglioside antibodies in association with colonic Th2-mediated immune responses has been reported in C. jejuni-infected C57BL/6 IL10-/- mice at 4 to 6 wk after infection. We hypothesized that, due to their Th2 immunologic bias, BALB/c mice would develop autoantibodies and signs of peripheral neuropathy after infection with a GBS patient-derived strain of C. jejuni (strain 260.94). WT and IL10-/- BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with C. jejuni 260.94, phenotyped weekly for neurologic deficits, and euthanized after 5 wk. Immune responses were assessed as C. jejuni-specific and antiganglioside antibodies in plasma and cytokine production and histologic lesions in the proximal colon. Peripheral nerve lesions were assessed in dorsal root ganglia and their afferent nerve fibers by scoring immunohistochemically labeled macrophages through morphometry. C. jejuni 260.94 stably colonized both WT and IL10-/- mice and induced systemic Th1/Th17-mediated immune responses with significant increases in C. jejuni-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 plasma antibodies. However, C. jejuni 260.94 did not induce IgG1 antiganglioside antibodies, colitis, or neurologic deficits or peripheral nerve lesions in WT or IL10-/- mice. Both WT and IL10-/- BALB/c mice showed relative protection from development of Th2-mediated immunity and antiganglioside antibodies as compared with C57BL/6 IL10-/- mice. Therefore, BALB/c mice infected with C. jejuni 260.94 are not an effective disease model but provide the opportunity to study the role of immune mechanisms and host genetic background in the susceptibility to post infectious GBS.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Campylobacter jejuni , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Animals , Campylobacter Infections/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-10 , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL
20.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101707, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272177

ABSTRACT

This study examined predictors of TV use at bedtime and associations with toddlers' sleep and behavior using data from the Smart Beginnings study with 403 Medicaid-eligible, racial/ethnic minority participants from two cities in the United States. We first estimated predictors of TV use at bedtime at 18 months. We then examined whether TV at bedtime was associated with concurrent parent-report of nighttime sleep duration and quality, and later problem behavior at 24 months. Results showed that around half of the sample reported using TV at bedtime with their toddlers, and particularly first-time mothers and those receiving public assistance. We also found that use of TV at bedtime was related to concurrent sleep issues and increases in later problem behavior. Mediational path analyses revealed that TV at bedtime affected behavior via sleep quality. Despite the heterogeneity within this Medicaid-eligible sample, the results underscore the universally harmful effects of TV use at bedtime and lend support for structuring nighttime routines for toddlers to promote better sleep and behavioral outcomes.

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