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1.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 1000-1006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: By the end of 2020, 38 states and the District of Columbia had issued requirements that people wear face masks when in public settings to counter SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To examine the role face mask mandates played in economic recovery, we analyzed the interactive effect of having a state face mask mandate in place on county-level consumer spending after state reopening, adjusting for county rates of new COVID-19 cases and deaths, time trends, and county-specific effects. METHODS: We collected county-specific data from state executive orders, consumer spending data from the Opportunity Insights Economic Tracker, and COVID-19 case and death data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 tracker. Using an event study approach, we compared county-level changes in consumer spending before and after state-issued closure orders were lifted and assessed the interactive effect of state-issued face mask mandates. RESULTS: The lifting of state-issued closures was associated with an average increase in consumer spending across all counties studied within 1 month. However, the increase was 1.2-1.7 percentage points higher in counties with a state face mask mandate in place than in counties without a state face mask mandate. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to their public health benefits, face mask mandates may have assisted economic recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting they are a strong public health strategy for policy makers to consider now and for potential future pandemics arising from airborne viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109297, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sociodemographic factors and chronic conditions associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among persons with substance use disorder (PWSUD) are not well understood. We identified risk factors associated with COVID-19 among PWSUD with hospital visits. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we conducted a case-control study using ICD-10-CM codes to identify PWSUD aged 12 years and older with hospital visits for any reason during April-December 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to identify factors associated with COVID-19 diagnosis among PWSUD (age, sex, race/ethnicity, U.S. Census Region, urban/rural classification, insurance payor type, comorbidities, and substance use disorder [SUD] type), and then stratified by SUD type. RESULTS: From April-December 2020, 18,298 (1.3%) of 1,429,154 persons with SUD in the database had a COVID-19 diagnosis. Among PWSUD, opioid use disorder (OUD; aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.32), alcohol use disorder (AUD; aOR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.11-1.22), cocaine or other stimulant use disorder (COUD; aOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.22-1.34), and multiple SUDs (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.26) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19, as were comorbidities such as chronic lower respiratory disease (aOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.26-1.37), chronic hepatitis (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34-1.57), and diabetes (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.71-1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Among a sample of PWSUD, OUD, AUD, COUD, multiple SUDs, and associated comorbidities were associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. Integration of COVID-related care, care of other comorbidities, and SUD treatment may benefit PWSUD. Future studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 prevention in this population and to reduce disparities among subpopulations at increased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 43-49, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238289

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death. DESIGN: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death. PARTICIPANTS: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from usafacts.org. INTERVENTIONS: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels. RESULTS: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Commerce , Employment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 25-35, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools are an integral part of the community; however, congregate settings facilitate transmission of SARS-CoV-2, presenting a challenge to school administrators to provide a safe, in-school environment for students and staff. METHODS: We adapted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's COVIDTracer Advanced tool to model the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a school of 596 individuals. We estimate possible reductions in cases and hospitalizations among this population using a scenario-based analysis that accounts for (a) the risk of importation of infection from the community; (b) adherence to key Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended mitigation strategies: mask wearing, cleaning and disinfection, hand hygiene, and social distancing; and (c) the effectiveness of contact tracing interventions at limiting onward transmission. RESULTS: Low impact and effectiveness of mitigation strategies (net effectiveness: 27%) result in approximately 40% of exposed staff and students becoming COVID-19 cases. When the net effectiveness of mitigation strategies was 69% or greater, in-school transmission was mostly prevented, yet importation of cases from the surrounding community could result in nearly 20% of the school's population becoming infected within 180 days. The combined effects of mitigation strategies and contact tracing were able to prevent most onward transmission. Hospitalizations were low among children and adults (<0.5% of the school population) across all scenarios examined. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our model, layering mitigation strategies and contact tracing can limit the number of cases that may occur from transmission in schools. Schools in communities with substantial levels of community spread will need to be more vigilant to ensure adherence of mitigation strategies to minimize transmission. Our results show that for school administrators, teachers, and parents to provide the safest environment, it is important to utilize multiple mitigation strategies and contract tracing that reduce SARS CoV-2 transmission by at least 69%. This will require training, reinforcement, and vigilance to ensure that the highest level of adherence is maintained over the entire school term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , United States
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 212-216, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079855

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted predominantly by respiratory droplets generated when infected persons cough, sneeze, spit, sing, talk, or breathe. CDC recommends community use of face masks to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of October 22, 2020, statewide mask mandates were in effect in 33 states and the District of Columbia (2). This study examined whether implementation of statewide mask mandates was associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization growth rates among different age groups in 10 sites participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) in states that issued statewide mask mandates during March 1-October 17, 2020. Regression analysis demonstrated that weekly hospitalization growth rates declined by 2.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-5.5) among adults aged 40-64 years during the first 2 weeks after implementing statewide mask mandates. After mask mandates had been implemented for ≥3 weeks, hospitalization growth rates declined by 5.5 percentage points among persons aged 18-39 years (95% CI = 0.6-10.4) and those aged 40-64 years (95% CI = 0.8-10.2). Statewide mask mandates might be associated with reductions in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and might contribute to reductions in COVID-19 hospitalization growth rates, compared with growth rates during <4 weeks before implementation of the mandate and the implementation week. Mask-wearing is a component of a multipronged strategy to decrease exposure to and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce strain on the health care system, with likely direct effects on COVID-19 morbidity and associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1917-1921, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016446

ABSTRACT

As school districts across the United States consider how to safely operate during the 2020-21 academic year, CDC recommends mitigation strategies that schools can adopt to reduce the risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). To identify the resources and costs needed to implement school-based mitigation strategies and provide schools and jurisdictions with information to aid resource allocation, a microcosting methodology was employed to estimate costs in three categories: materials and consumables, additional custodial staff members, and potential additional transportation. National average estimates, using the national pre-kindergarten through grade 12 (preK-12) public enrollment of 50,685,567 students, range between a mean of $55 (materials and consumables only) to $442 (all three categories) per student. State-by-state estimates of additional funds needed as a percentage of fiscal year 2018 student expenditures (2) range from an additional 0.3% (materials and consumables only) to 7.1% (all three categories); however, only seven states had a maximum estimate above 4.2%. These estimates, although not exhaustive, highlight the level of resources needed to ensure that schools reopen and remain open in the safest possible manner and offer administrators at schools and school districts and other decision-makers the cost information necessary to budget and prioritize school resources during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Resources/economics , Schools/economics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , Schools/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 496-501, 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000462

ABSTRACT

Cleaning and disinfection of frequently touched surfaces and frequent hand hygiene are recommended measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, poison center calls regarding exposures to cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers have increased as compared with prior years, indicating a need to evaluate household safety precautions. An opt-in Internet panel survey of 502 U.S. adults was conducted in May 2020. Survey items evaluated knowledge regarding use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; attitudes about household cleaning and disinfection; and safety precautions practiced during the prior month. We assigned a knowledge score to each respondent to quantify knowledge of safety precautions and calculated median scores by demographic characteristics and attitudes. We identified gaps in knowledge regarding safe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; the overall median knowledge score was 5.17 (95% CI: 4.85-5.50; maximum 9.00). Knowledge scores were lower among younger than older age-groups and among black non-Hispanic and Hispanic respondents compared with white non-Hispanic respondents. A greater proportion of respondents expressed knowledge of safety precautions than the proportion who engaged in these precautions. Tailored communication strategies should be used to reach populations with lower knowledge of cleaning and disinfection safety. In addition, as knowledge alone did not shape individual engagement in safety precautions, health promotion campaigns may specifically emphasize the health risks of unsafe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers to address risk perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hand Sanitizers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1443-1449, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842498

ABSTRACT

Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high levels of self-reported handwashing among adults worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic (3-5)†; however, little is known about how handwashing behavior among U.S. adults has changed since the start of the pandemic. For this study, survey data from October 2019 (prepandemic) and June 2020 (during pandemic) were compared to assess changes in adults' remembering to wash their hands in six situations.§ Statistically significant increases in reported handwashing were seen in June 2020 compared with October 2019 in four of the six situations; the odds of remembering to wash hands was 2.3 times higher among respondents after coughing, sneezing, or blowing their nose, 2.0 times higher before eating at a restaurant, and 1.7 times higher before eating at home. Men, young adults aged 18-24 years, and non-Hispanic White (White) adults were less likely to remember to wash hands in multiple situations. Strategies to help persons remember to wash their hands frequently and at important times should be identified and implemented, especially among groups reporting low prevalence of remembering to wash their hands.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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