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1.
Nature ; 604(7904): 134-140, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671590

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 261 million people and has led to more than 5 million deaths in the past year and a half1 ( https://www.who.org/ ). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection typically develop mild-to-severe flu-like symptoms, whereas infection of a subset of individuals leads to severe-to-fatal clinical outcomes2. Although vaccines have been rapidly developed to combat SARS-CoV-2, there has been a dearth of antiviral therapeutics. There is an urgent need for therapeutics, which has been amplified by the emerging threats of variants that may evade vaccines. Large-scale efforts are underway to identify antiviral drugs. Here we screened approximately 18,000 drugs for antiviral activity using live virus infection in human respiratory cells and validated 122 drugs with antiviral activity and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2. Among these candidates are 16 nucleoside analogues, the largest category of clinically used antivirals. This included the antivirals remdesivir and molnupiravir, which have been approved for use in COVID-19. RNA viruses rely on a high supply of nucleoside triphosphates from the host to efficiently replicate, and we identified a panel of host nucleoside biosynthesis inhibitors as antiviral. Moreover, we found that combining pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors with antiviral nucleoside analogues synergistically inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo against emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a clinical path forward.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Nucleosides , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282298

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating global pandemic, infecting over 43 million people and claiming over 1 million lives, with these numbers increasing daily. Therefore, there is urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms governing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and disease progression. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can block IRF3 and NF-κB activation early during virus infection. We also identify that the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins NSP1 and NSP13 can block interferon activation via distinct mechanisms. NSP1 antagonizes interferon signaling by suppressing host mRNA translation, while NSP13 downregulates interferon and NF-κB promoter signaling by limiting TBK1 and IRF3 activation, as phospho-TBK1 and phospho-IRF3 protein levels are reduced with increasing levels of NSP13 protein expression. NSP13 can also reduce NF-κB activation by both limiting NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Last, we also show that NSP13 binds to TBK1 and downregulates IFIT1 protein expression. Collectively, these data illustrate that SARS-CoV-2 bypasses multiple innate immune activation pathways through distinct mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Nucleus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Nucleus/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Phosphorylation/genetics , Phosphorylation/immunology , /immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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