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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1706-1711, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614366

ABSTRACT

Immediately following the March 13, 2020 declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency (1), the U.S. government began implementing national testing programs for epidemiologic surveillance, monitoring of frontline workers and populations at higher risk for acquiring COVID-19, and identifying and allocating limited testing resources. Effective testing supports identification of COVID-19 cases; facilitates isolation, quarantine, and timely treatment measures that limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19); and guides public health officials about the incidence of COVID-19 in a community. A White House Joint Task Force, co-led by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), created the Community-Based Testing Sites (CBTS) program working with state and local partners (2). This report describes the timeline, services delivered, and scope of the CBTS program. During March 19, 2020-April 11, 2021, the CBTS program conducted 11,661,923 SARS-CoV-2 tests at 8,319 locations across the United States and its territories, including 402,223 (3.5%) administered through Drive-Through Testing, 10,129,142 (86.9%) through Pharmacies+ Testing, and 1,130,558 (9.7%) through Surge Testing programs. Tests administered through the CBTS program yielded 1,176,959 (10.1%) positive results for SARS-CoV-2. Among tested persons with available race data,* positive test results were highest among American Indian or Alaska Native (14.1%) and Black persons (10.4%) and lowest among White persons (9.9%), Asian persons (7.3%), and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders (6.4%). Among persons with reported ethnicity, 25.3% were Hispanic, 15.9% of whom received a positive test result. Overall, 82.0% of test results were returned within 2 days, but the percentage of test results returned within 2 days was as low as 40.7% in July 2020 and 59.3% in December 2020 during peak testing periods. Strong partnerships enabled a rapid coordinated response to establish the federally supported CBTS program to improve access to no-charge diagnostic testing, including for frontline workers, symptomatic persons and close contacts, and persons living in high-prevalence areas. In April 2021, the CBTS Pharmacies+ Testing and Surge Testing programs were expanded into the Increasing Community Access to Testing (ICATT) program. As of November 12, 2021, the CBTS and ICATT programs conducted approximately 26.6 million tests with approximately 10,000 active testing sites. Although the CBTS program represented a relatively small portion of overall U.S. SARS-CoV-2 testing, with its successful partnerships and adaptability, the CBTS program serves as a model to guide current community-based screening, surveillance, and disease control programs, and responses to future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cooperative Behavior , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Interinstitutional Relations , Male , Medically Underserved Area , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
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