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1.
Clin Obes ; 12(3): e12514, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700258

ABSTRACT

The association between body mass index (BMI) and poor COVID-19 outcomes in patients has been demonstrated across numerous studies. However, obesity-related comorbidities have also been shown to be associated with poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether BMI or obesity-associated comorbidities contribute to elevated COVID-19 severity in non-elderly, hospitalized patients with elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2 ). This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 526 hospitalized, non-elderly adult (aged 18-64) COVID-19 patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 in suburban New York from March 6 to May 11, 2020. The Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) was used to quantify the severity of obesity-related comorbidities. EOSS was compared with BMI in multivariable regression analyses to predict COVID-19 outcomes. We found that higher EOSS scores were associated with poor outcomes after demographic adjustment, unlike BMI. Specifically, patients with increased EOSS scores had increased odds of acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.40; 95% CI 3.71-11.05), intensive care unit admission (aOR = 10.71; 95% CI 3.23-35.51), mechanical ventilation (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 2.01-4.78) and mortality (aOR = 5.05; 95% CI 1.83-13.90). Obesity-related comorbidity burden as determined by EOSS was a better predictor of poor COVID-19 outcomes relative to BMI, suggesting that comorbidity burden may be driving risk in those hospitalized with elevated BMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Diabetes Care ; 44(7): 1564-1572, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the respective associations of premorbid glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use, compared with premorbid dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP4i) use, with severity of outcomes in the setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed observational data from SARS-CoV-2-positive adults in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a multicenter, longitudinal U.S. cohort (January 2018-February 2021), with a prescription for GLP1-RA, SGLT2i, or DPP4i within 24 months of positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. The primary outcome was 60-day mortality, measured from positive SARS-CoV-2 test date. Secondary outcomes were total mortality during the observation period and emergency room visits, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation within 14 days. Associations were quantified with odds ratios (ORs) estimated with targeted maximum likelihood estimation using a super learner approach, accounting for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The study included 12,446 individuals (53.4% female, 62.5% White, mean ± SD age 58.6 ± 13.1 years). The 60-day mortality was 3.11% (387 of 12,446), with 2.06% (138 of 6,692) for GLP1-RA use, 2.32% (85 of 3,665) for SGLT2i use, and 5.67% (199 of 3,511) for DPP4i use. Both GLP1-RA and SGLT2i use were associated with lower 60-day mortality compared with DPP4i use (OR 0.54 [95% CI 0.37-0.80] and 0.66 [0.50-0.86], respectively). Use of both medications was also associated with decreased total mortality, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Among SARS-CoV-2-positive adults, premorbid GLP1-RA and SGLT2i use, compared with DPP4i use, was associated with lower odds of mortality and other adverse outcomes, although DPP4i users were older and generally sicker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113715, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101261

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a set of public guidelines for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention measures that highlighted handwashing, physical distancing, and household cleaning. These health behaviors are severely compromised in parts of the world that lack secure water supplies, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used empirical data gathered in 2017-2018 from 8,297 households in 29 sites across 23 LMICs to address the potential implications of water insecurity for COVID-19 prevention and response. These data demonstrate how household water insecurity presents many pathways for limiting personal and environmental hygiene, impeding physical distancing and exacerbating existing social and health vulnerabilities that can lead to more severe COVID-19 outcomes. In the four weeks prior to survey implementation, 45.9% of households in our sample either were unable to wash their hands or reported borrowing water from others, which may undermine hygiene and physical distancing. Further, 70.9% of households experienced one or more water-related problems that potentially undermine COVID-19 control strategies or disease treatment, including insufficient water for bathing, laundering, or taking medication; drinking unsafe water; going to sleep thirsty; or having little-to-no drinking water. These findings help identify where water provision is most relevant to managing COVID-19 spread and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Water Insecurity , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Hygiene , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(1): 208-211, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052910

ABSTRACT

Many patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are acutely malnourished and often require aggressive and early nutrition support with parenteral nutrition (PN). However, PN-induced hyperglycemia is a predictor of hospital mortality and is associated with increased length of stay. Elevated blood glucose in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is also associated with increased mortality. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) is primarily used in the outpatient setting, but there is rapidly growing interest in its applicability to help treat dysglycemia in critically ill patients, especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the use of rtCGM data (Dexcom G6) in a 58-year-old male admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 infection, who developed PN-induced hyperglycemia with markedly elevated total daily insulin requirements as high as 128 units. rtCGM was used to safely titrate insulin infusion and monitor glucose levels. No episodes of hypoglycemia were observed, despite an extremely aggressive insulin regimen. This case demonstrates the potential utility of rtCGM in the critical care setting and highlights its potential to help conserve personal protective equipment and minimize unnecessary staff exposure in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(3): 607-614, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the clinical utility and accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) (Dexcom G6) in managing diabetes patients with severe COVID-19 infection following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We present retrospective analysis of masked rtCGM in 30 patients with severe COVID-19. rtCGM was used during the first 24 hours for comparison with arterial-line point of care (POC) values, where clinicians utilized rtCGM data to adjust insulin therapy in patients if rtCGM values were within 20% of point-of-care (POC) values during the masked period. An investigator-developed survey was administered to assess nursing staff (n = 66) perceptions regarding the use of rtCGM in the ICU. RESULTS: rtCGM data were used to adjust insulin therapy in 30 patients. Discordance between rtCGM and POC glucose values were observed in 11 patients but the differences were not considered clinically significant. Mean sensor glucose decreased from 235.7 ± 42.1 mg/dL (13.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L) to 202.7 ± 37.6 mg/dL (11.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L) with rtCGM management. Improvements in mean sensor glucose were observed in 77% of patients (n = 23) with concomitant reductions in daily POC measurements in 50% of patients (n = 15) with rtCGM management. The majority (63%) of nurses reported that rtCGM was helpful for improving care for patients with diabetes patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 49% indicated that rtCGM reduced their use of personal protective equipment (PPE). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a strong rationale to increase clinician awareness for the adoption and implementation of rtCGM systems in the ICU. Additional studies are needed to further understand the utility of rtCGM in critically ill patients and other clinical care settings.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Intensive Care Units , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Remote Sensing Technology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care Nursing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Patient Admission , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
6.
Nature Sustainability ; 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-748190

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene is critical for reducing transmission of communicable diseases, as we are so acutely aware during the COVID-19 pandemic. UNICEF has identified behaviour change and knowledge promotion as top strategies for increasing handwashing during this crisis, while acknowledging that millions of people lack the water necessary for handwashing.

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