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1.
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) ; 28(15), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837001

ABSTRACT

A unique DNA aptamer, denoted MSA52, displays universally high affinity for the spike proteins of the wild‐type SARS‐CoV‐2 as well as its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron variants. This aptamer also recognizes pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing eight different spike proteins of SARS‐CoV‐2 with very high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants (Kd) of 20–50 pM for these viruses. More information can be found in the Research Article by J. D. Brennan, Y. Li et al. (DOI: 10.1002/chem.202200078).

2.
Cell Rep Methods ; 1(6): 100069, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763677

ABSTRACT

The compounding challenges of low signal, high background, and uncertain targets plague many metagenomic sequencing efforts. One solution has been DNA capture, wherein probes are designed to hybridize with target sequences, enriching them in relation to their background. However, balancing probe depth with breadth of capture is challenging for diverse targets. To find this balance, we have developed the HUBDesign pipeline, which makes use of sequence homology to design probes at multiple taxonomic levels. This creates an efficient probe set capable of simultaneously and specifically capturing known and related sequences. We validated HUBDesign by generating probe sets targeting the breadth of coronavirus diversity, as well as a suite of bacterial pathogens often underlying sepsis. In separate experiments demonstrating significant, simultaneous enrichment, we captured SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 in a human RNA background and seven bacterial strains in human blood. HUBDesign (https://github.com/zacherydickson/HUBDesign) has broad applicability wherever there are multiple organisms of interest.

3.
Chemistry ; 28(15): e202200524, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750335

ABSTRACT

Invited for the cover of this issue are John Brennan, Yingfu Li, and co-workers at McMaster University. The image depicts MSA52 as a universal DNA aptamer that recognizes spike proteins of diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.202200078.

6.
mSphere ; 7(2): e0099821, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714366

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is a recently identified novel coronavirus that is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2020. An intense research effort has been undertaken by the research community in order to better understand the molecular etiology of this virus and its mechanisms of host cell subjugation and immune system evasion. To facilitate further research into the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus we have generated adenovirus 5-based viral vectors that express SARS-CoV-2 proteins-S, N, E, NSP7, NSP8, and NSP12 as hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged and untagged variants. We have also engineered two additional viruses that express the S protein receptor binding domain and a fusion of the receptor binding domain to the N protein. We show that these vectors are expressed in several different cell lines by Western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR), we evaluate the subcellular localization of these viral proteins, and we show that these coronavirus proteins bind to a variety of cellular targets. The flexibility of adenovirus vectors allows them to be used in a variety of cell models and, importantly, in animal models as well. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has brought untold personal and economic suffering to the world. Intense research has made tremendous progress in understanding how this virus works, yet much research remains to be done as new variants and continued evolution of the virus keep shifting the rules of engagement on the pandemic battlefield. Therefore, wide availability of resources and reagents to study SARS-CoV-2 is essential in overcoming the pandemic and for the prevention of future outbreaks. Our viral vectors provide additional tools for researchers to use in order to better understand the molecular biology of virus-host interactions and other aspects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins
7.
Cell ; 185(5): 896-915.e19, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670278

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) threaten the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines administered intramuscularly and designed to only target the spike protein. There is a pressing need to develop next-generation vaccine strategies for broader and long-lasting protection. Using adenoviral vectors (Ad) of human and chimpanzee origin, we evaluated Ad-vectored trivalent COVID-19 vaccines expressing spike-1, nucleocapsid, and RdRp antigens in murine models. We show that single-dose intranasal immunization, particularly with chimpanzee Ad-vectored vaccine, is superior to intramuscular immunization in induction of the tripartite protective immunity consisting of local and systemic antibody responses, mucosal tissue-resident memory T cells and mucosal trained innate immunity. We further show that intranasal immunization provides protection against both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Our findings indicate that respiratory mucosal delivery of Ad-vectored multivalent vaccine represents an effective next-generation COVID-19 vaccine strategy to induce all-around mucosal immunity against current and future VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
8.
Chemistry ; 28(15): e202200078, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653193

ABSTRACT

We report on a unique DNA aptamer, denoted MSA52, that displays universally high affinity for the spike proteins of wildtype SARS-CoV-2 as well as the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron variants. Using an aptamer pool produced from round 13 of selection against the S1 domain of the wildtype spike protein, we carried out one-round SELEX experiments using five different trimeric spike proteins from variants, followed by high-throughput sequencing and sequence alignment analysis of aptamers that formed complexes with all proteins. A previously unidentified aptamer, MSA52, showed Kd values ranging from 2 to 10 nM for all variant spike proteins, and also bound similarly to variants not present in the reselection experiments. This aptamer also recognized pseudotyped lentiviruses (PL) expressing eight different spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 with Kd values between 20 and 50 pM, and was integrated into a simple colorimetric assay for detection of multiple PL variants. This discovery provides evidence that aptamers can be generated with high affinity to multiple variants of a single protein, including emerging variants, making it well-suited for molecular recognition of rapidly evolving targets such as those found in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7058-7065, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although influenza vaccines provide protection against influenza viruses, concern has been raised that they may increase susceptibility to non-influenza respiratory viruses. As pandemic lockdowns end, temporal overlap of circulation of seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is expected. Understanding the impact of influenza vaccination on risk of coronavirus infection is therefore of considerable public health importance. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized trial where children and adolescents in Canadian Hutterite colonies were randomly assigned by colony to receive the 2008-2009 seasonal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or a control hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine. All 3273 colony members (vaccinated children and nonvaccine recipients) were followed for the primary outcome of RT-PCR confirmed seasonal coronavirus infection. Serum collected pre- and post-vaccination was analyzed for titers of IgG antibodies towards human coronaviruses (HCoV). RESULTS: The incidence of coronavirus infection was 0·18/1000 person-days in the colonies that received TIV vs 0.36/1000 person-days in the control group, hazard ratio (HR) 0.49 [0.21-1.17]. The risk reduction among non-vaccine recipients in the TIV group compared to the control group was HR 0.55 [0.24-1.23]. There was an increase in the geometric mean fold change of HCoV-OC43 antibody titers following TIV compared to HepA vaccine (mean difference 1.2 [0.38-2.06], p = 0.007), and an increase in geometric mean HCoV-NL63 antibody titers post-TIV (262.9 vs 342.9, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The influenza vaccine does not increase the risk of a coronavirus infection. Instead, the influenza vaccine may reduce the rate of coronavirus infections by inducing cross-reactive anti-coronavirus IgG antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Canada , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
10.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512696

ABSTRACT

Survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections frequently suffer from a range of post-infection sequelae. Whether survivors of mild or asymptomatic infections can expect any long-term health consequences is not yet known. Herein we investigated lasting changes to soluble inflammatory factors and cellular immune phenotype and function in individuals who had recovered from mild SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 22), compared to those that had recovered from other mild respiratory infections (n = 11). Individuals who had experienced mild SARS-CoV-2 infections had elevated levels of C-reactive protein 1-3 months after symptom onset, and changes in phenotype and function of circulating T-cells that were not apparent in individuals 6-9 months post-symptom onset. Markers of monocyte activation, and expression of adherence and chemokine receptors indicative of altered migratory capacity, were also higher at 1-3 months post-infection in individuals who had mild SARS-CoV-2, but these were no longer elevated by 6-9 months post-infection. Perhaps most surprisingly, significantly more T-cells could be activated by polyclonal stimulation in individuals who had recently experienced a mild SARS-CoV-2, infection compared to individuals with other recent respiratory infections. These data are indicative of prolonged immune activation and systemic inflammation that persists for at least three months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping/methods , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
12.
Angewandte Chemie ; 133(45):24468-24476, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1482111

ABSTRACT

We report a simple and rapid saliva‐based SARS‐CoV‐2 antigen test that utilizes a newly developed dimeric DNA aptamer, denoted as DSA1N5, that specifically recognizes the spike proteins of the wildtype virus and its Alpha and Delta variants with dissociation constants of 120, 290 and 480 pM, respectively, and binds pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing the wildtype and alpha trimeric spike proteins with affinity constants of 2.1 pM and 2.3 pM, respectively. To develop a highly sensitive test, DSA1N5 was immobilized onto gold electrodes to produce an electrochemical impedance sensor, which was capable of detecting 1000 viral particles per mL in 1:1 diluted saliva in under 10 min without any further sample processing. Evaluation of 36 positive and 37 negative patient saliva samples produced a clinical sensitivity of 80.5 % and specificity of 100 % and the sensor could detect the wildtype virus as well as the Alpha and Delta variants in the patient samples, which is the first reported rapid test that can detect any emerging variant of SARS‐CoV‐2.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7267-7279, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298981

ABSTRACT

We performed in vitro selection experiments to identify DNA aptamers for the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1 protein). Using a pool of pre-structured random DNA sequences, we obtained over 100 candidate aptamers after 13 cycles of enrichment under progressively more stringent selection pressure. The top 10 sequences all exhibited strong binding to the S1 protein. Two aptamers, named MSA1 (Kd = 1.8 nM) and MSA5 (Kd = 2.7 nM), were assessed for binding to the heat-treated S1 protein, untreated S1 protein spiked into 50% human saliva and the trimeric spike protein of both the wildtype and the B.1.1.7 variant, demonstrating comparable affinities in all cases. MSA1 and MSA5 also recognized the pseudotyped lentivirus of SARS-CoV-2 with respective Kd values of 22.7 pM and 11.8 pM. Secondary structure prediction and sequence truncation experiments revealed that both MSA1 and MSA5 adopted a hairpin structure, which was the motif pre-designed into the original library. A colorimetric sandwich assay was developed using MSA1 as both the recognition element and detection element, which was capable of detecting the pseudotyped lentivirus in 50% saliva with a limit of detection of 400 fM, confirming the potential of these aptamers as diagnostic tools for COVID-19 detection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , Base Pairing , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , SELEX Aptamer Technique
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285962

ABSTRACT

IgA is the second most abundant antibody present in circulation and is enriched at mucosal surfaces. As such, IgA plays a key role in protection against a variety of mucosal pathogens including viruses. In addition to neutralizing viruses directly, IgA can also stimulate Fc-dependent effector functions via engagement of Fc alpha receptors (Fc-αRI) expressed on the surface of certain immune effector cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte, express Fc-αRI, and are often the first to respond to sites of injury and infection. Here, we describe a function for IgA-virus immune complexes (ICs) during viral infections. We show that IgA-virus ICs potentiate NETosis-the programmed cell-death pathway through which neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Mechanistically, IgA-virus ICs potentiated a suicidal NETosis pathway via engagement of Fc-αRI on neutrophils through a toll-like receptor-independent, NADPH oxidase complex-dependent pathway. NETs also were capable of trapping and inactivating viruses, consistent with an antiviral function.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/virology , Humans , Influenzavirus A/immunology , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Virion
15.
iScience ; 24(5): 102477, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201540

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFNs) are our first line of defense against virus infection. Recent studies have suggested the ability of SARS-CoV-2 proteins to inhibit IFN responses. Emerging data also suggest that timing and extent of IFN production is associated with manifestation of COVID-19 severity. In spite of progress in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 activates antiviral responses, mechanistic studies into wild-type SARS-CoV-2-mediated induction and inhibition of human type I IFN responses are scarce. Here we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a type I IFN response in vitro and in moderate cases of COVID-19. In vitro stimulation of type I IFN expression and signaling in human airway epithelial cells is associated with activation of canonical transcriptions factors, and SARS-CoV-2 is unable to inhibit exogenous induction of these responses. Furthermore, we show that physiological levels of IFNα detected in patients with moderate COVID-19 is sufficient to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication in human airway cells.

16.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194709

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While detection of SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) is currently used to diagnose acute COVID-19 infection, serological assays are needed to study the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig)G/A/M antibodies against spike (S) protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were characterized in recovered subjects who were RT-PCR-positive (n = 153) and RT-PCR-negative (n = 55) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antibodies were also further assessed for their ability to neutralize live SARS-CoV-2 virus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 90.9% of resolved subjects up to 180 days post-symptom onset. Anti-S protein and anti-RBD IgG titers correlated (r = 0.5157 and r = 0.6010, respectively) with viral neutralization. Of the RT-PCR-positive subjects, 22 (14.3%) did not have anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; and of those, 17 had RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values > 27. These high Ct values raise the possibility that these indeterminate results are from individuals who were not infected or had mild infection that failed to elicit an antibody response. This study highlights the importance of serological surveys to determine population-level immunity based on infection numbers as determined by RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
J Gen Virol ; 101(12): 1251-1260, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066517

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged to cause widespread infections in humans. SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes seasonal outbreaks with a case fatality rate of ~37 %. Here we show that there exists a theoretical possibility of future recombination events between SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV RNA. Through computational analyses, we have identified homologous genomic regions within the ORF1ab and S genes that could facilitate recombination, and have analysed co-expression patterns of the cellular receptors for SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, ACE2 and DPP4, respectively, to identify human anatomical sites that could facilitate co-infection. Furthermore, we have investigated the likely susceptibility of various animal species to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection by comparing known virus spike protein-receptor interacting residues. In conclusion, we suggest that a recombination between SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV RNA is possible and urge public health laboratories in high-risk areas to develop diagnostic capability for the detection of recombined coronaviruses in patient samples.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Reassortant Viruses , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Coinfection , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , Host Specificity , Humans , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Cell Surface , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(7): 100126, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807604

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The Spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 mediate viral entry and are the main targets for neutralizing antibodies. Understanding the antibody response directed against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the development of vaccine, therapeutic, and public health interventions. Here, we perform a cross-sectional study on 106 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals to evaluate humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike. Most infected individuals elicit anti-Spike antibodies within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. The levels of receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) persist over time, and the levels of anti-RBD IgM decrease after symptom resolution. Although most individuals develop neutralizing antibodies within 2 weeks of infection, the level of neutralizing activity is significantly decreased over time. Our results highlight the importance of studying the persistence of neutralizing activity upon natural SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1116

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged to cause widespread infections in humans. SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported

20.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 615-632, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744378

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most formidable challenge to humanity in a century. It is widely believed that prepandemic normalcy will never return until a safe and effective vaccine strategy becomes available and a global vaccination programme is implemented successfully. Here, we discuss the immunological principles that need to be taken into consideration in the development of COVID-19 vaccine strategies. On the basis of these principles, we examine the current COVID-19 vaccine candidates, their strengths and potential shortfalls, and make inferences about their chances of success. Finally, we discuss the scientific and practical challenges that will be faced in the process of developing a successful vaccine and the ways in which COVID-19 vaccine strategies may evolve over the next few years.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Herd/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
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