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2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a global public health threat with infections recorded in nearly every country. Responses to COVID-19 have varied in intensity and breadth, but generally have included domestic and international travel limitations, closure of non-essential businesses, and repurposing of health services. While these interventions have focused on testing, treatment, and mitigation of COVID-19, there have been reports of interruptions to diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for other public health threats. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a scoping review to characterize the early impact of COVID-19 on HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. METHODS: A scoping literature review was completed using searches of PubMed and preprint servers (medRxiv/bioRxiv) from November 1st, 2019 to October 31st, 2020, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 and HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. Empiric studies reporting original data collection or mathematical models were included, and available data synthesized by region. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English. RESULTS: A total of 1604 published papers and 205 preprints were retrieved in the search. Overall, 8.0% (129/1604) of published studies and 10.2% (21/205) of preprints met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review: 7.3% (68/931) on HIV, 7.1% (24/339) on tuberculosis, 11.6% (26/224) on malaria, 7.8% (19/183) on sexual and reproductive health, and 9.8% (13/132) on malnutrition. Thematic results were similar across competing health risks, with substantial indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and response on diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 emerged in the context of existing public health threats that result in millions of deaths every year. Thus, effectively responding to COVID-19 while minimizing the negative impacts of COVID-19 necessitates innovation and integration of existing programs that are often siloed across health systems. Inequities have been a consistent driver of existing health threats; COVID-19 has worsened disparities, reinforcing the need for programs that address structural risks. The data reviewed here suggest that effective strengthening of health systems should include investment and planning focused on ensuring the continuity of care for both rapidly emergent and existing public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Malaria , Malnutrition , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 196, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted consistent inequities in incidence, disease severity, and mortality across racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) and beyond. While similar patterns have been observed with previous viral respiratory pathogens, to date, no systematic review has comprehensively documented these disparities or potential contributing factors. In response, this review aims to synthesize data on racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality due to viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) other than SARS-CoV-2. This review will focus on understanding structural health and social factors to contextualize race and ethnicity driving these disparities in the US. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of studies published from January 1, 2002, onward. Our search will include PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO Host-CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles. We will include studies of any design that describe racial/ethnic disparities associated with viral ARI conducted in the US. Primary outcomes include incidence, disease severity or complication, hospitalization, or death attributed to ARI. Secondary outcomes include uptake of preventive interventions including vaccination, handwashing, social distancing, and wearing masks. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract relevant data. Data characterizing individual-, community-, and structural-level factors associated with these disparities will be abstracted to better understand the underlying structural inequities contributing to racial disparities in ARI. We will assess the methodological quality of all studies and will conduct meta-analyses using random effects models if appropriate. DISCUSSION: Findings from this systematic review will shed light on patterns of racial and ethnic disparities in viral ARI in the United States to support mathematical modeling of epidemic trajectories, intervention impact, and structural drivers of transmission, including structural racism. Moreover, data emerging from this review may reignite pandemic preparedness focused on communities with specific vulnerabilities related to living and working conditions given prevailing structural inequities, thus facilitating improved future pandemic responses to novel or endemic viral respiratory pathogens. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020219771.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 901, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV services, like many medical services, have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are limited data on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV treatment engagement outcomes among transgender (trans) and nonbinary people. This study addresses a pressing knowledge gap and is important in its global scope, its use of technology for recruitment, and focus on transgender people living with HIV. The objective of this study is to examine correlates of HIV infection and HIV treatment engagement outcomes (i.e., currently on ART, having an HIV provider, having access to HIV treatment without burden, and remote refills) since the COVID-19 pandemic began. METHODS: We utilized observational data from the Global COVID-19 Disparities Survey 2020, an online study that globally sampled trans and nonbinary people (n = 902) between April and August 2020. We conducted a series of multivariable logistic regressions with lasso selection to explore correlates of HIV treatment engagement outcomes in the context of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 120 (13.3%) trans and nonbinary people living with HIV in this survey, the majority (85.8%) were currently on HIV treatment. A smaller proportion (69.2%) reported having access to an HIV provider since COVID-19 control measures were implemented. Less than half reported being able to access treatment without burdens related to COVID-19 (48.3%) and having the ability to remotely refill HIV prescription (44.2%). After adjusting for gender in the multivariable models, younger age and anticipated job loss were significantly associated with not having access to HIV treatment without burden. Outcomes also significantly varied by geographic region, with respondents reporting less access to an HIV provider in nearly every region outside of South-East Asia. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that currently taking ART, having access to an HIV provider, and being able to access HIV treatment without burden and remotely refill HIV medication are suboptimal among trans and nonbinary people living with HIV across the world. Strengthening support for HIV programs that are well-connected to trans and nonbinary communities, increasing remote access to HIV providers and prescription refills, and providing socioeconomic support could significantly improve HIV engagement in trans and nonbinary communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Transgender Persons , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 52: 46-53.e2, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023435

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to ascertain COVID-19 transmission dynamics among Latino communities nationally. METHODS: We compared predictors of COVID-19 cases and deaths between disproportionally Latino counties (≥17.8% Latino population) and all other counties through May 11, 2020. Adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) were estimated using COVID-19 cases and deaths via zero-inflated binomial regression models. RESULTS: COVID-19 diagnoses rates were greater in Latino counties nationally (90.9 vs. 82.0 per 100,000). In multivariable analysis, COVID-19 cases were greater in Northeastern and Midwestern Latino counties (aRR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11-1.84, and aRR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.57-1.85, respectively). COVID-19 deaths were greater in Midwestern Latino counties (aRR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34). COVID-19 diagnoses were associated with counties with greater monolingual Spanish speakers, employment rates, heart disease deaths, less social distancing, and days since the first reported case. COVID-19 deaths were associated with household occupancy density, air pollution, employment, days since the first reported case, and age (fewer <35 yo). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 risks and deaths among Latino populations differ by region. Structural factors place Latino populations and particularly monolingual Spanish speakers at elevated risk for COVID-19 acquisition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Local Government , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25639, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) Initiative was launched nationally in February 2019. With a target of ending the HIV epidemic by 2030, EHE initially scales up effective HIV prevention and care in 57 localities that comprise the greatest proportion of annual HIV diagnoses in the United States (US). However, the EHE effort has been eclipsed by another infectious disease 11 months into the Initiative's implementation. SARS-COV-2, a novel coronavirus, has infected more than eight million Americans and at least 223 000 (as of 23 October 2020) have succumbed to the disease. This commentary explores the social conditions that place communities of colour at greater risk for COVID-19 and HIV, and assesses challenges to EHE in a post-COVID-19 universe. DISCUSSION: One of the many common threads between HIV and COVID-19 is the disproportionate impact of each disease among communities of colour. A recent report by the National Academy of Sciences surmised that as much as 70% of health outcomes are due to health access, socio-economic factors and environmental conditions. Social determinants of health associated with greater HIV burden in Black and Brown communities have re-emerged in epidemiological studies of disproportionate COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in communities of colour. Using data from the scientific literature, this commentary makes direct comparisons between HIV and COVID-19 racial disparities across the social determinants of health. Furthermore, I examine three sets of challenges facing EHE: (1) Challenges that hamper both the EHE and COVID-19 response (i.e. insufficiently addressing the social determinants of health; amplification of disparities as new health technologies are introduced) (2) Challenges posed by COVID-19 (i.e. diverting HIV resources to address COVID-19 and tapering of EHE funding generally); and (3) Challenges unrelated to COVID-19 (i.e. emergence of new and related health disparities; repeal of the Affordable Care Act and long-term viability of EHE). CONCLUSIONS: Racism and discrimination place communities of colour at greater risk for COVID-19 as well as HIV. Achieving and sustaining an end to the U.S. HIV epidemic will require structural change to eliminate conditions that give rise to and maintain disparities.


Subject(s)
Black or African American , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Racism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , United States
7.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(10): 417-424, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729065

ABSTRACT

Emerging epidemiological data suggest that white Americans have a lower risk of acquiring COVID-19. Although many studies have pointed to the role of systemic racism in COVID-19 racial/ethnic disparities, few studies have examined the contribution of racial segregation. Residential segregation is associated with differing health outcomes by race/ethnicity for various diseases, including HIV. This commentary documents differing HIV and COVID-19 outcomes and service delivery by race/ethnicity and the crucial role of racial segregation. Using publicly available Census data, we divide US counties into quintiles by percentage of non-Hispanic white residents and examine HIV diagnoses and COVID-19 per 100,000 population. HIV diagnoses decrease as the proportion of white residents increase across US counties. COVID-19 diagnoses follow a similar pattern: Counties with the highest proportion of white residents have the fewest cases of COVID-19 irrespective of geographic region or state political party inclination (i.e., red or blue states). Moreover, comparatively fewer COVID-19 diagnoses have occurred in primarily white counties throughout the duration of the US COVID-19 pandemic. Systemic drivers place racial minorities at greater risk for COVID-19 and HIV. Individual-level characteristics (e.g., underlying health conditions for COVID-19 or risk behavior for HIV) do not fully explain excess disease burden in racial minority communities. Corresponding interventions must use structural- and policy-level solutions to address racial and ethnic health disparities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Social Segregation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-260620

ABSTRACT

Purpose Given incomplete data reporting by race, we used data on COVID-19 cases and deaths in US counties to describe racial disparities in COVID-19 disease and death and associated determinants. Methods Using publicly available data (accessed April 13, 2020), predictors of COVID-19 cases and deaths were compared between disproportionately (>13%) black and all other (<13% black) counties. Rate ratios were calculated and population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using COVID-19 cases and deaths via zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. National maps with county-level data and an interactive scatterplot of COVID-19 cases were generated. Results Nearly ninety-seven percent of disproportionately black counties (656/677) reported a case and 49% (330/677) reported a death versus 81% (1987/2,465) and 28% (684/ 2465), respectively, for all other counties. Counties with higher proportions of black people have higher prevalence of comorbidities and greater air pollution. Counties with higher proportions of black residents had more COVID-19 diagnoses (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.33) and deaths (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40), after adjusting for county-level characteristics such as age, poverty, comorbidities, and epidemic duration. COVID-19 deaths were higher in disproportionally black rural and small metro counties. The PAF of COVID-19 diagnosis due to lack of health insurance was 3.3% for counties with <13% black residents and 4.2% for counties with >13% black residents. Conclusions Nearly twenty-two percent of US counties are disproportionately black and they accounted for 52% of COVID-19 diagnoses and 58% of COVID-19 deaths nationally. County-level comparisons can both inform COVID-19 responses and identify epidemic hot spots. Social conditions, structural racism, and other factors elevate risk for COVID-19 diagnoses and deaths in black communities.

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