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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab664, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692168

ABSTRACT

We quantify antibody and memory B-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at 6 and 12 months postinfection among 7 unvaccinated US coronavirus disease 2019 cases. All had detectable S-specific memory B cells and immunoglobulin G at both time points, with geometric mean titers of 117.2 BAU/mL and 84.0 BAU/mL at 6 and 12 months, respectively.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1700-1705, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614365

ABSTRACT

The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) provide strong protection against severe COVID-19, including hospitalization, for at least several months after receipt of the second dose (1,2). However, studies examining immune responses and differences in protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in real-world settings, including by vaccine product, are limited. To understand how vaccine effectiveness (VE) might change with time, CDC and collaborators assessed the comparative effectiveness of Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization at two periods (14-119 days and ≥120 days) after receipt of the second vaccine dose among 1,896 U.S. veterans at five Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs) during February 1-September 30, 2021. Among 234 U.S. veterans fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and without evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, serum antibody levels (anti-spike immunoglobulin G [IgG] and anti-receptor binding domain [RBD] IgG) to SARS-CoV-2 were also compared. Adjusted VE 14-119 days following second Moderna vaccine dose was 89.6% (95% CI = 80.1%-94.5%) and after the second Pfizer-BioNTech dose was 86.0% (95% CI = 77.6%-91.3%); at ≥120 days VE was 86.1% (95% CI = 77.7%-91.3%) for Moderna and 75.1% (95% CI = 64.6%-82.4%) for Pfizer-BioNTech. Antibody levels were significantly higher among Moderna recipients than Pfizer-BioNTech recipients across all age groups and periods since vaccination; however, antibody levels among recipients of both products declined between 14-119 days and ≥120 days. These findings from a cohort of older, hospitalized veterans with high prevalences of underlying conditions suggest the importance of booster doses to help maintain long-term protection against severe COVID-19.†.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , /administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans Health Services
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293462

ABSTRACT

The divergence of SARS-CoV-2 into variants of concern/interest (VOC/VOI) necessitated analysis of their impact on vaccines. Escape from vaccine-induced antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOIs was analyzed to ascertain and rank their risk. The variants showed differential reductions in neutralization and replication titers by the post-vaccination sera with Beta variant showing the most neutralization escape that was mechanistically driven by mutations in both the N-terminal domain and receptor-binding domain of the spike.

4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-24, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Characterize and compare SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4-13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. Post diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2-specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 timepoints and GCF SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 timepoints. RESULTS: All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12, neutralizing antibodies in 11, IgM in 10, and IgA in 9. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 and IgA in 12. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response was similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive through this evaluation's end 46-55 days post-diagnosis. All participants were viral culture negative by the first detection of antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Non-invasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1805-1813, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission. METHODS: We recruited patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during 22 March 2020-25 April 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (ORs) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test. RESULTS: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) overall, 42% among children (aged <18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions and household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection with ORs 15.9 (95% CI, 2.4-106.9) and 7.1 (95% CI: 1.2-42.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1841-e1849, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spectrum of disease is essential for clinical and public health interventions. There are limited data on mild or asymptomatic infections, but recognition of these individuals is key as they contribute to viral transmission. We describe the symptom profiles from individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 22 March to 22 April 2020 in Wisconsin and Utah, we enrolled and prospectively observed 198 household contacts exposed to SARS-CoV-2. We collected and tested nasopharyngeal specimens by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) 2 or more times during a 14-day period. Contacts completed daily symptom diaries. We characterized symptom profiles on the date of first positive rRT-PCR test and described progression of symptoms over time. RESULTS: We identified 47 contacts, median age 24 (3-75) years, with detectable SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. The most commonly reported symptoms on the day of first positive rRT-PCR test were upper respiratory (n = 32 [68%]) and neurologic (n = 30 [64%]); fever was not commonly reported (n = 9 [19%]). Eight (17%) individuals were asymptomatic at the date of first positive rRT-PCR collection; 2 (4%) had preceding symptoms that resolved and 6 (13%) subsequently developed symptoms. Children less frequently reported lower respiratory symptoms (21%, 60%, and 69% for <18, 18-49, and ≥50 years of age, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Household contacts with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported mild symptoms. When assessed at a single timepoint, several contacts appeared to have asymptomatic infection; however, over time all developed symptoms. These findings are important to inform infection control, contact tracing, and community mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Fever , Humans , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332001

ABSTRACT

Serologic assays developed for SARS-CoV-2 detect different antibody subtypes and are based on different target antigens. Comparison of the performance of a SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Protein ELISA and the nucleocapsid-based Abbott ArchitectTM SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay indicated that the assays had high concordance, with rare paired discordant tests results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1004-e1009, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent worldwide spread. The first US cases were identified in January 2020. METHODS: To determine if SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were present in sera prior to the first identified case in the United States on 19 January 2020, residual archived samples from 7389 routine blood donations collected by the American Red Cross from 13 December 2019 to 17 January 2020 from donors resident in 9 states (California, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin) were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specimens reactive by pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the full spike protein were tested by IgG and IgM ELISAs, microneutralization test, Ortho total Ig S1 ELISA, and receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity assay. RESULTS: Of the 7389 samples, 106 were reactive by pan-Ig. Of these 106 specimens, 90 were available for further testing. Eighty-four of 90 had neutralizing activity, 1 had S1 binding activity, and 1 had receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity >50%, suggesting the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies. Donations with reactivity occurred in all 9 states. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have been introduced into the United States prior to 19 January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , China , Connecticut , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iowa , Massachusetts , Michigan , Oregon , Rhode Island , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Washington , Wisconsin
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first US case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected on January 20, 2020. However, some serology studies suggest SARS-CoV-2 may have been present in the United States prior to that, as early as December 2019. The extent of domestic COVID-19 detection prior to 2020 has not been well-characterized. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among healthcare users in the greater Seattle, Washington area from October 2019 through early April 2020. STUDY DESIGN: We tested residual samples from 766 Seattle-area adults for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies utilizing an ELISA against prefusion-stabilized Spike (S) protein. RESULTS: No antibody-positive samples were found between October 2, 2019 and March 13, 2020. Prevalence rose to 1.2% in late March and early April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive samples in October 2019 through mid-March, 2020, provides evidence against widespread circulation of COVID-19 among healthcare users in the Seattle area during that time. A small proportion of this metropolitan-area cohort had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Washington
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(3): ofab048, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To estimate the infectious period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in older adults with underlying conditions, we assessed duration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity, and culture positivity among nursing home residents. METHODS: We enrolled residents within 15 days of their first positive SARS-CoV-2 test (diagnosis) at an Arkansas facility from July 7 to 15, 2020 and instead them for 42 days. Every 3 days for 21 days and then weekly, we assessed COVID-19 symptoms, collected specimens (oropharyngeal, anterior nares, and saliva), and reviewed medical charts. Blood for serology was collected on days 0, 6, 12, 21, and 42. Infectivity was defined by positive culture. Duration of culture positivity was compared with duration of COVID-19 symptoms and RT-PCR positivity. Data were summarized using measures of central tendency, frequencies, and proportions. RESULTS: We enrolled 17 of 39 (44%) eligible residents. Median participant age was 82 years (range, 58-97 years). All had ≥3 underlying conditions. Median duration of RT-PCR positivity was 22 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-31 days) from diagnosis; median duration of symptoms was 42 days (IQR, 28-49 days). Of 9 (53%) participants with any culture-positive specimens, 1 (11%) severely immunocompromised participant remained culture-positive 19 days from diagnosis; 8 of 9 (89%) were culture-positive ≤8 days from diagnosis. Seroconversion occurred in 12 of 12 (100%) surviving participants with ≥1 blood specimen; all participants were culture-negative before seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of infectivity was considerably shorter than duration of symptoms and RT-PCR positivity. Severe immunocompromise may prolong SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Seroconversion indicated noninfectivity in this cohort.

11.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-839914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children. We described infection rates and symptom profiles among pediatric household contacts of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We enrolled individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 and their household contacts, assessed daily symptoms prospectively for 14 days, and obtained specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serology testing. Among pediatric contacts (<18 years), we described transmission, assessed the risk factors for infection, and calculated symptom positive and negative predictive values. We compared secondary infection rates and symptoms between pediatric and adult contacts using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 58 households, 188 contacts were enrolled (120 adults; 68 children). Secondary infection rates for adults (30%) and children (28%) were similar. Among households with potential for transmission from children, child-to-adult transmission may have occurred in 2 of 10 (20%), and child-to-child transmission may have occurred in 1 of 6 (17%). Pediatric case patients most commonly reported headache (79%), sore throat (68%), and rhinorrhea (68%); symptoms had low positive predictive values, except measured fever (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44% to 100%). Compared with symptomatic adults, children were less likely to report cough (odds ratio [OR]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.57), loss of taste (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.74), and loss of smell (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.96) and more likely to report sore throat (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.04 to 11.18). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adults had similar secondary infection rates, but children generally had less frequent and severe symptoms. In two states early in the pandemic, we observed possible transmission from children in approximately one-fifth of households with potential to observe such transmission patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Utah/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825153

ABSTRACT

Since emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019, there has been a critical need to understand prevalence, transmission patterns, to calculate the burden of disease and case fatality rates. Molecular diagnostics, the gold standard for identifying viremic cases, are not ideal for determining true case counts and rates of asymptomatic infection. Serological detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies can contribute to filling these knowledge gaps. In this study, we describe optimization and validation of a SARS-CoV-2-specific-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the prefusion-stabilized form of the spike protein [1]. We performed receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to define the specificities and sensitivities of the optimized assay and examined cross reactivity with immune sera from persons confirmed tohave had infections with other coronaviruses. These assays will be used to perform contact investigations and to conduct large-scale, cross sectional surveillance to define disease burden in the population.

13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658119

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Reported cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection likely underestimate the prevalence of infection in affected communities. Large-scale seroprevalence studies provide better estimates of the proportion of the population previously infected. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convenience samples from several geographic sites in the US. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study performed serologic testing on a convenience sample of residual sera obtained from persons of all ages. The serum was collected from March 23 through May 12, 2020, for routine clinical testing by 2 commercial laboratory companies. Sites of collection were San Francisco Bay area, California; Connecticut; south Florida; Louisiana; Minneapolis-St Paul-St Cloud metro area, Minnesota; Missouri; New York City metro area, New York; Philadelphia metro area, Pennsylvania; Utah; and western Washington State. EXPOSURES: Infection with SARS-CoV-2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and estimates were standardized to the site populations by age and sex. Estimates were adjusted for test performance characteristics (96.0% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity). The number of infections in each site was estimated by extrapolating seroprevalence to site populations; estimated infections were compared with the number of reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases as of last specimen collection date. RESULTS: Serum samples were tested from 16 025 persons, 8853 (55.2%) of whom were women; 1205 (7.5%) were 18 years or younger and 5845 (36.2%) were 65 years or older. Most specimens from each site had no evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of persons seroreactive to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies ranged from 1.0% in the San Francisco Bay area (collected April 23-27) to 6.9% of persons in New York City (collected March 23-April 1). The estimated number of infections ranged from 6 to 24 times the number of reported cases; for 7 sites (Connecticut, Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, New York City metro area, Utah, and western Washington State), an estimated greater than 10 times more SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred than the number of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During March to early May 2020, most persons in 10 diverse geographic sites in the US had not been infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The estimated number of infections, however, was much greater than the number of reported cases in all sites. The findings may reflect the number of persons who had mild or no illness or who did not seek medical care or undergo testing but who still may have contributed to ongoing virus transmission in the population.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): 1645-1648, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633824

ABSTRACT

Among 249 healthcare personnel who worked in hospital units with COVID-19 patients for 1 month, 19 (7.6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Only 11 (57.9%) of the 19 personnel with positive serology reported symptoms of a prior illness, suggesting asymptomatic healthcare personnel could be an important source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Patient Care , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tennessee/epidemiology
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