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1.
Atmosphere ; 13(5):702, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1875465

ABSTRACT

It is difficult to improve the seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North China, owing to the complex dynamics of East Asian winter and the relatively low prediction skill level of current climate models. Deep learning (DL) may be an informative and promising tool to enhance seasonal prediction, particularly in regions where the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here, using a DL model based on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), we have found that the prediction skill for North China winter temperature (NCWT) can be extended up to five months by considering the remote impact of the Northeast Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) on North China. Based on historical simulations of winter temperatures in North China, we selected six CMIP5 models with relatively small deviations for training the CNN, and the period chosen for training was 1852–1991. The N1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/Ruo5N?_a=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%3D%3D&_s=2fC0CTd0WocPaF%2FXuQegxUXRgWY%3D ERA5 data during 1995–2017 were utilized to evaluate the performance of the CNN. Our CNN shows the best performance in a recent 10-year period (2008–2017), showing a significantly improved level of NCWT prediction skill with a correlation skill of 0.65 at a 5-month lead time, which is much better than the forecast skill of the state-of-the-art dynamic seasonal prediction system. Heat map analysis was used to explore the possible physical mechanisms associated with the NCWT anomaly from the perspective of the CNN;the results showed that the SST over the Northeast Pacific is highly relevant to NCWT prediction. The Northeast Pacific warming in the boreal summer is related to the development of the El Niño event in the coming winter, which may induce NCWT anomalies by atmospheric teleconnection. Climate model experiments support the role of Northeast Pacific warming in the boreal summer on NCWT. The improved capability for prediction from using the CNN may help to establish the energy policy for the coming winter and reduce the economic losses from extremely cold in North China.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(11):6373, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857816

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises awareness of how the fatal spreading of infectious disease impacts economic, political, and cultural sectors, which causes social implications. Across the world, strategies aimed at quickly recognizing risk factors have also helped shape public health guidelines and direct resources;however, they are challenging to analyze and predict since those events still happen. This paper intends to invesitgate the association between air pollutants and COVID-19 confirmed cases using Deep Learning. We used Delhi, India, for daily confirmed cases and air pollutant data for the dataset. We used LSTM deep learning for training the combination of COVID-19 Confirmed Case and AQI parameters over the four different lag times of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. The finding indicates that CO is the most excellent model compared with the others, having on average, 13 RMSE values. This was followed by pressure at 15, PM2.5 at 20, NO2 at 20, and O3 at 22 error rates.

3.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1737877

ABSTRACT

The Feilike mixture (FLKM) is a valid prescription that is frequently used to assist in the clinical treatment of pneumonia. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. First, through literature evaluation, it was preliminarily determined that FLKM improved clinical symptoms, regulated immune inflammation response and ameliorated pulmonary function. Then, via database search and literature mining, 759 targets of the 104 active compounds of FLKM were identified. The component-target (CT) network showed that the key active compositions were resveratrol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, sesamin, and quercetin. 115 targets overlapped with pneumonia-related targets. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network identified TNF, AKT1, IL6, JUN, VEGFA and MAPK3 as hub targets. KEGG analyses found that they were mainly enriched in immune related pathway. Next, in vivo experiment, we observed that FLKM ameliorated pathological injury of lung tissue and reduced neutrophil infiltration in rats with LPS-induced pneumonia. And FLKM decreased the concentration of TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF and downregulated the expression of p38MAPK, AKT and VEGFA in lung tissue. Finally, Molecular docking tests showed tight docking of these predicted targeted proteins with key active compounds. Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to assess stability and flexibility of receptor-ligand. Among them, AKT1- stigmasterol bound more stably, and their binding free energies were −47.91 ± 1.62 kcal/mol. This study revealed core compositions and targets for FLKM treating pneumonia and provided integrated pharmacological evidence to support its clinical efficacy.

4.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580211072440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699754

ABSTRACT

The continuation of the COVID-19 epidemic poses novel challenges for adult ostomy patients care. It is essential to explore nursing management for ostomy patients to ensure patients receive standardized care while minimizing exposure to COVID-19. This article reviews the perioperative nursing of Chinese adult ostomy patients in the post-epidemic era, as well as outpatient review after discharge and home care, to provide reference and basis for medical staff and patients in the post-pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Home Care Services , Ostomy , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324761

ABSTRACT

Background: : In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection worldwide, the risk of thrombosis and bleeding should be concerned. Objectives: We aimed to observe the dynamic changes of D-dimer levels during disease progression to evaluate their value for thrombosis. Methods: : In this study, we report the clinical and laboratory results of 57 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and 46 patients with confirmed community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP). And their concentrations of D-dimer, infection-related biomarkers, and conventional coagulation were retrospectively analyzed. Results: : On admission, both in COVID-19 patients and CAP patients, D-dimer levels were significantly increased, and compared with CAP patients, D-Dimer levels were higher in COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). Besides, we found that in COVID-19 patients, D-dimer were related with markers of inflammation, especially with hsCRP (R=0.426, P<0.05), and after treatments, D-dimer levels decreased which was synchronous with hsCRP levels in patients with good clinical prognosis, but there were still some patients with anomalous increasing D-dimer levels after therapy. Conclusions: : Elevated baseline D-dimer levels are associated with inflammation in COVID-19 patients, and the abnormal changes of D-dimer and inflammatory factors suggest that anticoagulant therapy might be needed.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324206

ABSTRACT

COVID -19 has rapidly spread from Wuhan to worldwide, and now has become a global health concern. Hypertension is the most common chronic illness in COVID-19, while the influence on those patients have not been well described. In this retrospective study, 82 confirmed patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, with epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and therapies data analyzed and compared between COVID-19 patients with (29 cases) or without (53 cases) hypertension. Of all 82 patients with COVID-19, the median age of all patients was 60.5 years, including 49 females (59.8%) and 33 (40.2%) males. Hypertension (31[28.2%]) was the most chronic illness, followed by diabetes (16 [19.5%]) and cardiovascular disease (15 [18.3%]). Common symptoms included fatigue (55[67.1%]), dry cough (46 [56.1%]) and fever (≥37.3℃ (46 [56.1%]). The median time from illness onset to positive outcomes of RT-PCR analysis were 13.0 days, ranging from 3-25 days. In hypertension group, 6 (20.7%) patients died compared to 5 (9.4%) died in non-hypertension group. More hypertension patients with COVID-19 (8 [27.6%]) had at least one coexisting disease than those of non-hypertension patients (2 [3.8%]) ( P =0.002). Compared with non-hypertension patients, higher levels of neutrophil counts, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and NT-proBNP were observed in hypertension group, whereas levels of lymphocyte count and eGFR were decreased. Dynamic observations displayed more significant and worsened outcomes in hypertension group after hospital admission. COVID-19 patients with hypertension take more risks of severe inflammatory reactions, worsened internal organ injuries, and deteriorated progress.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317075

ABSTRACT

Background: To minimize the risk of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic, the learning mode of universities in China has been adjusted, and the online learning of clinical medicine is facing great challenges. This study preliminarily discusses the experience of express team-based learning (eTBL) combined with a flipped classroom (FC) and case-based learning (CBL) online for nonclinical medical students and addresses the distribution of online learning resources used in pediatrics. This study helps to document additional experience in online learning during the global trend of digital learning. Methods: When online learning was fully launched at Sichuan University in the spring of 2020, 236 penultimate-year students of nonclinical medicine majors were selected as the research objects. The penultimate-year students of the same majors in the spring of 2019 were taken as the reference objects. The research objects successively used the methods of eTBL combined with FC and CBL methods to conduct online learning in pediatrics, and students were encouraged to search and share online learning resources. The reference objects used the method of eTBL combined with CBL for offline face-to-face learning, and the test results of the two learning environments were compared. At the end of the pediatrics course in the spring of 2020, the research objects were invited to participate anonymously in an online questionnaire survey involving 12 items on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) to evaluate the participation, satisfaction, and distribution of online learning resources used in pediatrics. Results: 1. Student participation and test scores: i. A total of 75.8% (179/236) of the respondents completed the questionnaire effectively, and 7 items on the Likert scale indicated that online learning with eTBL + FC had higher student participation than eTBL + CBL (4.64 vs 4.27, P < 0.001). ii. In the spring of 2019 and 2020, the average scores of the last four subjects were higher than those of the first four subjects (P < 0.001). The average scores of online learning courses in the spring of 2020 were higher than those of offline learning in the spring of 2019 (P < 0.001). 2. Online learning resources: i. The main motivations for students to use online learning resources were pre-class preparation (4.83), class discussion (4.28) and pre-class testing (3.79). ii. A total of 72.9% (129/179) of the students “most or all of the time” searched online learning resources in the pre-class preparation stage. iii. Students' online learning resources mainly included Chinese academic databases, search engines, teaching platforms and foreign databases. iv. The information retrieval ability of students was improved after the above online learning methods (after versus before, Mdn 5 VS 4, U = 591.0, P = 0.007). 3. More students thought that the online learning method of eTBL + CBL was more beneficial for understanding than that of eTBL + FC (P = 0.044), while the online learning method of eTBL + FC was more conducive for online learning resource retrieval than that of eTBL + CBL (P = 0.034), and the workload was greater (P = 0.001). Both of the online learning methods were conducive to online learning resource sharing (P = 0.298). 4. The results of five items on the Likert scale in the questionnaire showed that students' satisfaction with the online learning mode was high (4.16). Conclusion: i. During the COVID-19 pandemic, online eTBL shortened the learning time of typical TBL. After online learning with eTBL, in combination with FC, CBL and the use of online learning resources, students had high rates of participation and satisfaction. ii. Online learning test results were as good as offline test results. iii. The main motivation for students to use online learning resources came from learning tasks. Chinese academic databases and search engines were the main learning resources for nonclinical medical students. iv. Both online combined learning methods were helpful for stude ts to share online learning resources. eTBL + FC was more helpful in retrieving online learning resources, and the workload was also larger, while eTBL + CBL was more helpful for students to understand course content.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315265

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is steadily increasing and has become a public health concern. Lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic may have an impact on the status of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. This study aimed to analyze the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the status of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. Methods: : We retrospectively analyzed the children and adolescents who visited the West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University from January 1st, 2018 to June 30st, 2020. We included obese children who met the criteria and divided them into 5 groups with 6 months as the unit according to the time of their visit. The national lockdown time was used as a segmentation point to study the changes of obesity status in the same children before and after lockdown. Results: : A total of 140,526 children and adolescents visited the outpatient department from January 1st, 2018 to June 30st, 2020, and 1,740 of them were diagnosed as overweight or obese at the time of their first visit. The study found that there was a significant difference in the obesity rate among the groups (P < 0.01). However, there was no difference between January to June, 2020 and the previous period. Except for the increased incidence of VD deficiency (P < 0.01), the severity of obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia of obese children did not change before and after COVID-19 (P=0.303, 0.663, 0.106, respectively). A total of 65 obese children were followed up in the outpatient department before and after COVID-19 lockdown. There were no significant differences in BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR and 25(OH)VD among obese children before and after lockdown (p = 0.626, 0.386, 0.251, respectively). Conclusions: : The available evidence cannot prove that the COVID-19 pandemic affects the status of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents who visited hospitals. It may be related to the multiple effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310372

ABSTRACT

Background: The positive predictive effect of altruism on physical and psychological well-being has been extensively demonstrated in previous studies, but few studies have examined the effect of altruism on negative mental health outcomes when altruists cannot perform altruistic behaviours. This study explored the influence of altruism on negative affect and mental health (anxiety and depressive symptoms) during the COVID-19 pandemic while people self-isolated at home in China. Method: University students were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Self-reported perceived risk, altruism, negative affect, anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Self-Report Altruism Scale (SRA scale), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9). A structural equation model was used to analyse the mediating and moderating effects on mental health. Results: : The final sample comprised 1346 Chinese participants (Mage = 19.76 ± 2.23 years, 73% female). Overall, the higher the risk the participants perceived, the more negative affect they exhibited ( β = 0.16, p < .001), and thus, the more anxious and depressed they felt ( β = 0.134, p < .001);however, this relationship between risk perception and negative affect was moderated by altruism. In contrast to previous studies, the increase in negative affect associated with the increased perceived risk was pronounced among individuals with high altruism ( t = 7.68, p < .001). Conclusions: : Individuals with high altruism exhibited more negative affect than those with low altruism, which indirectly increased their anxiety and depressive symptoms. These findings enrich theories of altruism and provide valuable insight into the influence of altruism on mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308052

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO 2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 can inhibit six major clades of SARS-CoV-2 with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to ACE2 receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and Tamiflu-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.

11.
Drugs and Clinic ; 35(4):625-630, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1374638

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the utilization of anti-new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drugs of inpatients in Hubei N0.3 People's Hospital.

12.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5138

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab is reported to be able to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We tried to ascertain the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to be benefit from the treatment. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial at 6 hospitals in Anhui and Hubei. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The first dose of tocilizumab was 400 mg, diluted in 100 ml 0.9% saline, and intravenous dripped in more than 1 h. A second dose was given if a patient remained febrile for 24 hours after the first dose. The primary endpoint was the cure rate. Primary analysis was done in the intention -to -treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Findings: Between Feb 13, 2020, and March 13, 2020, 65 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (33 to tocilizumab and 32 to the controls). One patient in the control group, who aggravated severely 3 days after randomization, was transferred to the tocilizumab group. The cure rate in tocilizumab group was higher than that in the controls but not significant (94.12% vs 87.10%, P=0.4133). Adverse events were recorded in 20 (58.82%) of 34 tocilizumab recipients versus 4 (12.90%) of 31 in the controls. No serious adverse events were reported in tocilizumab group. Interpretation: Tocilizumab treatment did not increase the cure rate of COVID-19. A large scale of study enrolling more patients is needed. However,tocilizumab can improve oxygenation without significant influence on the time virus load tunes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab should be recommended for better disease management. Trial Registration: This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Number: ChiCTR2000029765). Funding: This work was supported by Department of Science and Technology of Anhui Province and Health Commission of Anhui Province (grant number: 202004a07020001) and the China National Center for Biotechnology Development (grant number: 2020YFC0843800).

13.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4064

ABSTRACT

A review. The new coronavirus (1919-nCoV) is a newly discovered new strain of coronavirus that can cause human new coronavirus pneumonia. he new coronavirus (1919-nCoV) has now been confirmed acute respiratory infectious disease, with fever, fatigue, and dry cough as the main manifestations. I severe cases, it can quickly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis that is difficult to correct, and coagulopathy. At present, clin. diagnosis is mainly based on epidemics, clin. manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest imaging, and real-time fluorescent RT-PCR nucleic acid detection in laboratory examinations is particularly important for the diagnosis of new coronaviruses. This article reviews the pathogenic characteristics of new coronaviruses and their relationship with real-time fluorescent RT-PCR nucleic acid detection.

14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-382770

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of new viruses, such as serve acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as well as the emerging of drug-resistance viruses highlight the urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. Herein, we report the discovery of a plant-derived small molecule, 6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyl-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylbutanoyl)-4,9-dihydro-1H-xanthene-1,3(2H)-dione (rhodomyrtone, RDT), which exhibited potent broad-spectrum antiviral activities against several RNA and DNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). RDT can significantly suppress viral gene expression and show the low possibility to elicit drug-resistant variants. Mechanistic study implied that RDT inhibited viral infection by disturbing the cellular factors that essential for viral gene expression. Our results suggested that RDT might be a promising lead compound for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

15.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-721

ABSTRACT

Background: Starting in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused severe pneumonia in Wuhan and spread nationwide and globally. Here, we report the clinical fe

16.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-675

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. Despite of the growing number of patients with COVID-19 infection, data on the clinical c

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20038935

ABSTRACT

With the capability of inducing elevated expression of ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ARBs/ACEIs) treatment may have a controversial role in both facilitating virus infection and reducing pathogenic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of ARBs/ACEIs usage with the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in a retrospective, single-center study. 126 COVID-19 patients with preexisting hypertension at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (HPHTCM) in Wuhan from January 5 to February 22, 2020 were retrospectively allocated to ARBs/ACEIs group (n=43) and non-ARBs/ACEIs group (n=83) according to their antihypertensive medication. 125 age- and sex-matched COVID-19 patients without hypertension were randomly selected as non-hypertension controls. In addition, the medication history of 1942 hypertension patients that were admitted to HPHTCM from November 1 to December 31, 2019 before COVID-19 outbreak were also reviewed for external comparison. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected, analyzed and compared between these groups. The frequency of ARBs/ACEIs usage in hypertension patients with or without COVID-19 were comparable. Among COVID-19 patients with hypertension, those received either ARBs/ACEIs or non-ARBs/ACEIs had comparable blood pressure. However, ARBs/ACEIs group had significantly lower concentrations of CRP (p=0.049) and procalcitonin (PCT, p=0.008). Furthermore, much lower proportion of critical patients (9.3% vs 22.9%; p=0.061), and a lower death rate (4.7% vs 13.3%; p=0.216) were observed in ARBs/ACEIs group than non-ARBs/ACEIs group, although these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Our findings thus support the use of ARBs/ACEIs in COVID-19 patients with preexisting hypertension.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20041277

ABSTRACT

BackgroundData regarding critical care for patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. We aimed to describe the clinical course, multi-strategy management, and respiratory support usage for the severe COVID-19 at the provincial level. MethodsUsing data from Sichuan Provincial Department of Health and the multicentre cohort study, all microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients in Sichuan who met the national severe criteria were included and followed-up from the day of inclusion (D1), until discharge, death, or the end of the study. FindingsOut of 539 COVID-19 patients, 81 severe cases (15.0%) were identified. The median (IQR) age was 50 (39-65) years, 37% were female, and 53.1% had chronic comorbidities. All severe cases were identified before requiring mechanical ventilation and treated in the intensive care units (ICUs), among whom 51 (63.0%) were treated in provisional ICUs and 77 patients (95.1%) were admitted by D1. On D1, 76 (93.8%) were administered by respiratory support, including 55 (67.9%) by conventional oxygen therapy (COT), 8 (9.9%) by high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and 13 (16.0%) by non-invasive ventilation (NIV). By D28, 53 (65.4%) were discharged, three (3.7%) were deceased, and 25 (30.9%) were still hospitalized. COT, administered to 95.1% of the patients, was the most commonly used respiratory support and met 62.7% of the respiratory support needed, followed by HFNC (19.3%), NIV ventilation (9.4%) and IV 8.5%. InterpretationThe multi-strategy management for severe COVID-19 patients including early identification and timely critical care may contribute to the low case-fatailty. Preparation of sufficient conventional oxygen equipment should be prioritized. Trial registration numberChiCTR2000029758.

19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20040691

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 is a novel human coronavirus, there is no specific antiviral drugs. It has been proved that host-cell-expressed CD147 could bind spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and involve in host cell invasion. Antibody against CD147 could block the infection of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of meplazumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, as add-on therapy in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. MethodsAll patients received recommended strategy from Diagnosis and Treatment for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases released by National Health Commission of China. Eligible patients were add-on administered 10 mg meplazumab intravenously at days 1, 2, and 5. Patients hospitalized in the same period were observed as concurrent control. The endpoints include virological clearance rate, case severity, chest radiographic, and laboratory test. This trial was approved by the Ethics Committee of Institution at the Tangdu hospital, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 04275245. Findings17 patients were enrolled and assigned to meplazumab group between Feb 3, 2020 and Feb 10, 2020. 11 hospitalized patients served as concurrent control. Baseline characteristics were generally balanced across two groups. Compared to control group, meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (p=0.006) and case severity (p=0.021) in critical and severe patients. The time to virus negative in meplazumab group was reduced than that in control group (median 3, 95%CI[1.5-4.5] vs. 13, [6.5-19.5]; p=0.014, HR=0.37, 95%CI[0.155-0.833]). The percentages of patients recovered to the normal lymphocyte count and CRP concentration were also increased remarkably and rapidly in meplazumab group. No adverse effect was found in meplazumab-treated patients. InterpretationMeplazumab efficiently improved the recovery of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile. Our results support to carry out a large-scale investigation of meplazumab as a treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia. FundingNational Science and Technology Major Project.

20.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-988345

ABSTRACT

Currently, COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely spread around the world; nevertheless, so far there exist no specific antiviral drugs for treatment of the disease, which poses great challenge to control and contain the virus. Here, we reported a research finding that SARS-CoV-2 invaded host cells via a novel route of CD147-spike protein (SP). SP bound to CD147, a receptor on the host cells, thereby mediating the viral invasion. Our further research confirmed this finding. First, in vitro antiviral tests indicated Meplazumab, an anti-CD147 humanized antibody, significantly inhibited the viruses from invading host cells, with an EC50 of 24.86 g/mL and IC50 of 15.16 g/mL. Second, we validated the interaction between CD147 and SP, with an affinity constant of 1.85x10-7M. Co-Immunoprecipitation and ELISA also confirmed the binding of the two proteins. Finally, the localization of CD147 and SP was observed in SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells by immuno-electron microscope. Therefore, the discovery of the new route CD147-SP for SARS-CoV-2 invading host cells provides a critical target for development of specific antiviral drugs.

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