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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760723

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study was to examine the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures (fxs) according to the level of physical activity (PA) among osteoporosis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) customized database. From NHIS data from 2009 to 2017, osteoporosis was selected as requested. PA was classified into 'high PA' (n = 58,620), 'moderate PA' (n = 58,620), and 'low PA' (n = 58,620) and were matched in a 1:1:1 ratio by gender, age, income within the household unit, and region of residence. A stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for each type of fx comparing PA groups. The 'low PA' group was the reference group. For vertebral fx, the adjusted HR (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) was 0.27 (0.26-0.28) for the 'high PA' group and 0.43 (0.42-0.44) for the 'moderate PA' group. For hip fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.37 (0.34-0.40) for the 'high PA' group and 0.51 (0.47-0.55) for the 'moderate PA' group. For distal radius fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.32 (0.30-0.33) for the 'high PA' group and 0.46 (0.45-0.48) for the 'moderate PA' group. The results of this study suggest that a higher intensity of PA is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fxs, including vertebral fx, hip fx, and distal radius fx.

2.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715466

ABSTRACT

This study examined the associations between the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures in detailed sites and combined physical activity (PA) and sunshine duration (SD). Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort for 7-year periods and from the Korea Meteorological Administration were used. Osteoporotic fractures (n = 12,103), including vertebral fractures, hip fractures, and distal radius fractures, and matched controls (n = 24,206) were selected in 1:2 ratios by age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (High PA) and low-intensity PA (Low PA). SD was classified as Short SD (<6.1 h) and Long SD (≥6.1 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95%-confidence intervals (CIs) of the combined PA and SD groups for the occurrence of each osteoporotic fracture. Compared to 'Low PA + Short SD', the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for vertebral fracture in 'High PA + Short SD' and 'High PA + Long SD' were 0.83 (0.76-0.91) and 0.84 (0.77-0.92), respectively. Hip/distal radius fractures were not associated with the combined PA and SD group. We suggest that a higher intensity of PA is inversely associated with the risk of vertebral fracture.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 130-136, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to that during the prepandemic period. METHODS: Data from participants in the Korean Community Health Survey in 2019 and 2020 aged ≥ 19 years old were analyzed. In total, the data of 223,306 participants from the 2020 group were compared with the data of 217,133 participants from the 2019 group regarding the experience and severity of depression. The experience of depression was surveyed in terms of a history of sadness or despair for ≥2 weeks in the last year. In addition, the PHQ-9 scores were used, and participants with PHQ-9 scores ≥10 were recategorized as having moderate to severe depression. The odds for depression of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group based on the survey and PHQ-9 scores were calculated using simple or multiple logistic regression with complex sampling with weighted values. RESULTS: The rate of depression experience was lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group. The odds of experiencing depression were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.95, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.91-0.98, P = 0.004). The odds of moderate to severe depression were also lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (aOR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88-0.97, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The rate of depression experience was not higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the prepandemic period in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470901

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association of income level with susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Using the Korean National Health Insurance COVID-19 Database cohort, medical claim data from 2015 through 2020 were collected. A total of 7943 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020 were included. A total of 118,914 participants had negative COVID-19 PCR tests. Income levels were classified by 20th percentiles based on 2019 Korean National Health Insurance premiums. The 20th percentile income levels were categorized into three groups (low, middle, and high). The relationship of income level with susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. A high income level was related to lower odds of COVID-19 infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.83, p < 0.001). The negative association between income level and COVID-19 infection was maintained in all subgroups. Patients with low income levels were susceptible to COVID-19 infection; however, there was no relation of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with income level in the Korean population.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354992

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the associations of the susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thyroid diseases. Korea National Health Insurance Database Coronavirus disease 2019 (NHID-COVID-19) medical claim code data from 2015 to 2020 were analyzed. A total of 8070 COVID-19 patients and 32,280 matched control participants were evaluated for histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis. The relationships of susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to COVID-19 with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not associated with susceptibility to, morbidity of, or mortality due to COVID-19. Graves' disease was related to higher odds of mortality due to COVID-19 in the adjusted model but the confidence interval (CI) was wide, probably due to the small number of deaths among patients with Graves' disease (aOR = 11.43, 95% CI = 1.29-101.22, p = 0.029). Previous histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not related to susceptibility to COVID-19. In addition, prior histories of thyroid diseases were not related to increased risks of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295881

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Morbidity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231453

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between physical activity (PA), sunshine duration (SD) and the occurrence of osteoporosis according to lifestyle status. (2) Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) collected from 2009 to 2015 were used. Osteoporosis (n = 19,351) and control (n = 38,702) participants were matched in a 1:2 ratio according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (MHPA) or low-intensity PA (LPA) based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). SD was classified as short (≤6 h) or long (>6 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MHPA and long SD for the occurrence of osteoporosis. Subgroup analyses were performed according to SD (or PA), obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. (3) The adjusted OR of MHPA for osteoporosis was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87-0.94). The results were consistent in the age/sex, SD, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption subgroups, but not the <60-year-old male and underweight subgroups. The adjusted OR of long SD for osteoporosis was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93-1.00). The findings were consistent in the <60-year-old female, obese, nonsmoker, and <1 time a week alcohol consumption subgroups. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that both higher intensity of PA and long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis. Specifically, PA could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in individuals with most characteristics except male sex or underweight. Long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in young females, obese individuals, nonsmokers, and individuals with lower alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Osteoporosis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977742

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported the association of obesity with increased morbidity or mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the relationship of obesity, as defined by the body mass index (BMI), with morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Data from 5628 confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Korea. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in the BMI groups were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of morbidity and diabetes in the BMI groups were analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates. Both underweight and obesity were associated with a higher HR for mortality (adjusted HR = 2.28, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.23-4.25, p = 0.009 for underweight and adjusted HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.10-2.66, p = 0.017 for obese). Obesity was related to higher odds of morbidity (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.32-2.21, p < 0.001). Underweight and obesity were associated with high mortality and/or morbidity due to COVID-19 in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Obesity/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Thinness/virology
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