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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(16): 1967-1976, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Innovative coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, with elevated global manufacturing capacity, enhanced safety and efficacy, simplified dosing regimens, and distribution that is less cold chain-dependent, are still global imperatives for tackling the ongoing pandemic. A previous phase I trial indicated that the recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (V-01), which contains a fusion protein (IFN-PADRE-RBD-Fc dimer) as its antigen, is safe and well tolerated, capable of inducing rapid and robust immune responses, and warranted further testing in additional clinical trials. Herein, we aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of V-01, providing rationales of appropriate dose regimen for further efficacy study. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial was initiated at the Gaozhou Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Guangdong, China) in March 2021. Both younger (n = 440; 18-59 years of age) and older (n = 440; ≥60 years of age) adult participants in this trial were sequentially recruited into two distinct groups: two-dose regimen group in which participants were randomized either to follow a 10 or 25 µg of V-01 or placebo given intramuscularly 21 days apart (allocation ratio, 3:3:1, n = 120, 120, 40 for each regimen, respectively), or one-dose regimen groups in which participants were randomized either to receive a single injection of 50 µg of V-01 or placebo (allocation ratio, 3:1, n = 120, 40, respectively). The primary immunogenicity endpoints were the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and specific binding antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD). The primary safety endpoint evaluation was the frequencies and percentages of overall adverse events (AEs) within 30 days after full immunization. RESULTS: V-01 provoked substantial immune responses in the two-dose group, achieving encouragingly high titers of neutralizing antibody and anti-RBD immunoglobulin, which peaked at day 35 (161.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 133.3-196.7] and 149.3 [95%CI: 123.9-179.9] in 10 and 25 µg V-01 group of younger adults, respectively; 111.6 [95%CI: 89.6-139.1] and 111.1 [95%CI: 89.2-138.4] in 10 and 25 µg V-01 group of older adults, respectively), and remained high at day 49 after a day-21 second dose; these levels significantly exceed those in convalescent serum from symptomatic COVID-19 patients (53.6, 95%CI: 31.3-91.7). Our preliminary data show that V-01 is safe and well tolerated, with reactogenicity predominantly being absent or mild in severity and only one vaccine-related grade 3 or worse AE being observed within 30 days. The older adult participants demonstrated a more favorable safety profile compared with those in the younger adult group: with AEs percentages of 19.2%, 25.8%, 17.5% in older adults vs. 34.2%, 23.3%, 26.7% in younger adults at the 10, 25 µg V-01 two-dose group, and 50 µg V-01 one-dose group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine candidate V-01 appears to be safe and immunogenic. The preliminary findings support the advancement of the two-dose, 10 µg V-01 regimen to a phase III trial for a large-scale population-based evaluation of safety and efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2100045107, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=124702).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(12): 110126, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556413

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that the high mortality caused by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus primarily results from complications of a cytokine storm. Therefore, it is critical to identify the key factors participating in the cytokine storm. Here we demonstrate that interferon-induced protein 35 (IFP35) plays an important role in the cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infection. We find that the levels of serum IFP35 in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 correlates with severity of the syndrome. Using mouse model and cell assays, we show that IFP35 is released by lung epithelial cells and macrophages after SARS-CoV-2 or influenza virus infection. In addition, we show that administration of neutralizing antibodies against IFP35 considerably reduces lung injury and, thus, the mortality rate of mice exposed to viral infection. Our findings suggest that IFP35 serves as a biomarker and as a therapeutic target in virus-induced syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 4217-4225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336361

ABSTRACT

The on-going pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to unprecedented medical and socioeconomic crises. Although the viral pathogenesis remains elusive, deficiency of effective antiviral interferon (IFN) responses upon SARS-CoV-2 infection has been recognized as a hallmark of COVID-19 contributing to the disease pathology and progress. Recently, multiple proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 have been shown to act as potential IFN antagonists with diverse possible mechanisms. Here, we summarize and discuss the strategies of SARS-CoV-2 for evasion of innate immunity (particularly the antiviral IFN responses), understanding of which will facilitate not only the elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis but also the development of antiviral intervention therapies.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 587317, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883856

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to social and economic disruption globally. It is urgently needed to understand the structure and function of the viral proteins for understanding of the viral infection and pathogenesis and development of prophylaxis and treatment strategies. Coronavirus non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) is a notable virulence factor with versatile roles in virus-host interactions and exhibits unique characteristics on sequence, structure, and function mode. However, the roles and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 are currently unclear. Here, we analyze the nsp1 of SARS-CoV-2 from the following perspectives: (1) bioinformatics analysis reveals that the novel nsp1 is conserved among SARS-CoV-2 strains and shares significant sequence identity with SARS-CoV nsp1; (2) structure modeling shows a 3D α/ß-fold of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 highly similar to that of the SARS-CoV homolog; (3) by detailed, functional review of nsp1 proteins from other coronaviruses (especially SARS-CoV) and comparison of the protein sequence and structure, we further analyzed the potential roles of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 in manipulating host mRNA translation, antiviral innate immunity and inflammation response and thus likely promoting viral infection and pathogenesis, which are merited to be tested in the future. Finally, we discussed how understanding of the novel nsp1 may provide valuable insights into the designs of drugs and vaccines against the unprecedented coronavirus pandemic.

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